Isanti Dakota

Grammar Guide

GENDER

  1. In Parts of Speech
    1. Pronouns
      1. In the third person form of inseparable personal pronouns, separate personal and possessive pronouns no distinction is made between he/she/it and him/her.
      2. Gender does not affect reflexive, demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite pronouns.
    2. Verbs
      1. Gender only affects verbs in the imperative mood.
        1. Male giving a command to one person (singular)
          1. yo is used with the third person singular form of verbs ending in a, añ,e, i, iñ, and all verbs used with the negative ßni.
            1. ßkaþa yo - play
            2. ayußþañ yo - leave it alone
            3. he©oñ ßni yo - don't do that
          2. wo with the third person singular verbs ending in o, oñ, u, and uñ, un ßni is used.
            1. u wo - come
            2. he©oñ wo - do that
        2. Male giving a command to more than one (plural)
          1. öo with the third person singular of any verb, when the order is positive
            1. wiyußúiñ öo - be happy or glad
            2. iñyañúa öo - run
          2. yo with the third person singular of any verb, when the order is negative
            1. he©oñöi ßni yo
            2. heyaöi ßni yo
        3. Female giving a command to one person (singular)
          1. ye is used with the third person singular form of verbs ending in a, añ,e, i, iñ, and all verbs used with the negative ßni.
            1. ßkaþa ye - play
            2. ayußþañ ye - leave it alone
            3. he©oñ ßni ye - don't do that
          2. we with the third person singular verbs ending in o, oñ, u, and uñ, un ßni is used.
            1. u we - come
            2. he©oñ we - do that
        4. Male giving a command to more than one (plural)
          1. öe with the third person singular of any verb, when the order is positive
            1. wiyußúiñ öe - be happy or glad
            2. iñyañúa öe - run
          2. ye with the third person singular of any verb, when the order is negative
            1. he©oñöi ßni ye
            2. heyaöi ßni ye
        5. Entreaty
          1. When the speaker addresses one person (singular) he or she uses the third person singular followed by ye
            1. inajiñ ye - please stand up
            2. u yes - please come
            3. heye ßni ye - please don't say that
              1. if the verb terminates in a changeable a syllable, the a becomes i
                1. woúiyaúi ye - please speak to him (instead of woúiyaúa ye)
    3. Adjectives
      1. The separate possessive adjectives do not differentiate between he/she/it or him/her in the third person singular form.
      2. The inseparable possessive adjectives do not differentiate between he/she/it or him/her in the third person singular form.
      3. Adjectives expressing possession of one's body and its physical parts does not distinguish between his/her in the third person singular form.
      4. Adjectives expressing possession of one's incorporeal constituents does not distinquish between his/her in the third person singular form.
      5. Possessive adjectives expressing relationship do not distinguish between his/her in the third person singular form.
    4. Prepositions
      1. Separate and inseparable prepositions are not affected by gender.
    5. Adverbs
      1. Adverbs of modality
        1. Affirmative
          1. þo - yes (used by men)
          2. hau - yes (used by men)
          3. þoß - yes (used by women)
          4. hañ - yes (used by women)
          5. There are other words of affirmation but they are used by both genders equally.
        2. Negative
          1. Both men and women use hiya for the word no.
          2. The answer to a negative question or proposition, is opposite of what is expected in English, which often leads to confusion. A negative proposition is answered by the affirmative (þo/hau or þoß/hañ) but repeats the negative verb.
          3. The speaker contradicts the proposition by the negative hiya, no, and repeating the positive verb.
            1. Examples:
              1. Le wa©iñ ßni se©e. (I think you do not want this)
              2. If the speaker affirms, that is, does not want it, he will say: Þo wa©iñ ßni. (Yes, I do not want it.)
              3. If he contradicts, that is, wants it, he will reply: Hiya, wa©iñ. (No, I want it)
          4. There are other negative adverbs but they are not affected by gender.
        3. Interrogative
          1. The form of the verb is the same in both declarative and interrogative sentences. To indicate the question, certain adverbial particles are placed at the end of the sentence.
            1. Men use hwo
              1. Yau kþa hwo? (Will you come?)
            2. Women use he
              1. Þoúiya ni kþa he? (Where will you go?)
          2. So is sometimes used by both men and women.
            1. Íola, þohañl wanasaöi kte so? (Friend, when will they go hunting?)
          3. Today he is often used by men, when asking a question. Some say it is because they have learned to speak from their mothers while others say it just represents the change the language is under going.
        4. Imperative
          1. These adverbs have already been addressed under the command verb forms.
        5. Declarative
          1. Declarative sentences often terminate in an adverbial particle, especially when they come as brief statements or as concluding sentences. These particles also add rhythm and sound to the sentence.
            1. Men use yelo if the preceding word ends in e, i, or
              1. wakþe yelo. (I killed it).
              2. wahi yelo . (I arrived).
              3. wa©iñ yelo. (I want it).
                1. The only exception to this rule is the i of the plural öi which changes into e and is folowed by lo such as hiöe lo (instead of hiöi lo) (they arrived).
            2. Men use welo if the preceding word ends in o, oñ, u, or .
              1. Ni©o welo. (He calls for thee).
              2. Nawaü'oñ welo. (I heard it).
              3. Mak'u welo. (He gave it to me).
              4. Le miye muñ welo. (I am using this).
            3. Men use yelo after unchangeable terminal syllables which end with a or : gañ, ha, üa, ü'a, üañ, ü'añ, la and wa.
              1. Bluha yelo. (I have it).
              2. Wayawa yelo. (I am reading).
            4. Men use lo after all other a and terminal syllable because they change to e at the end of sentences.
              1. wani©e lo {wani©a}. (There is nothing on hand).
              2. waúaðe lo {úaða}. (I made it).
              3. Amaóe lo (aóa). (He hit me).
              4. Iyaye lo (iyaya). (He went away).
            5. Women never use the particle lo.
            6. Women do not use a particle when a word ends in e or an a or which changes to e.
            7. Women use we or wele with words which end in o, , u, and uñ.
              1. Wau we. (I am coming).
            8. Women use ye or yele when words end in i or iñ.
              1. wahi ye. (I arrived).
            9. After they have made a statement men sometime use yelo, alone, which would be equal to "that is so".
    6. Conjunctions
      1. Gender does not influence conjunctions.
    7. Interjections
      1. Interjections are words used to express strong sudden feeling. Sometimes they are used by themselves and other times they are followed by explanatory sentences. Some must be used with other words.
      2. There are many interjections, some which are used only by women and others only by men. Some are not gender specific.
        1. Some examples of interjections used by women:
          1. þuúi (expresses wonder at an unusual event)
          2. yuñ (expresses pain or fatique)
          3. huñhe huñhe (expresses regret)
          4. ma (expresses surprise)
        2. Some examples of interjections used by men:
          1. hoü (expresses disgust)
          2. hei (said to attract attention)
          3. hauñ (expresses severe pain or sorrow)
          4. huñhuñhe (expresses regret)
        3. Some examples of interjection used by both men and women:
          1. hoúahe (with a long o) a signal to start a race, dancing or some other group action
          2. hoúahe (with a long e) welcomes a visitor into one's house
          3. (expresses friendly disapproval of a personnal joke)
          4. e (expresses joy upon seeing or hearing something pleasant)
    8. Nouns
      1. Animals
        1. By different words
        2. Examples:
          1. tatañka - buffalo bull and tapte or pte - buffalo cow
          2. heüaúa - male elk and uñóañ - female elk
      2. By adding a qualifier
        1. Examples:
          1. íañgi bdoúa - male crow and íañgi wiñyeñna - female crow
          2. mañúa bdoúa - male skunk and mañúa wiñyeñna - female skunk
          3. åabdoúa - a male deer or buck and åawiñyeñna - a female deer or doe*
          4. ßuñbdoúa - stallion and ßuñwiñyeñna - mare*
          5. ptebdoúa - domestic bull and ptewiñyeñna - domestic cow*
            1. *often the words are contracted
    9. Humans
      1. By different words
        1. Different words are used to indicate the sex and age level of people.
          1. Examples:
            1. hokßida/hokßina - boy
            2. wi©iñyañna/wi©iñ©añna - girl
            3. koßka - young man
            4. wikoßka - young woman
            5. wi©aüiñ©a - old man
            6. winoü©a - old women
            7. wi©a - male
            8. winyañ - female
            9. wi©aßa - is the generic term for human beings but is commonly used for man, as well.
        1. Different words are used to indicate the sex of a child.
          1. Examples:
            1. ©uñkß/©uñkßi - daughter
              1. mi©uñkßi - my daughter
              2. ni©uñkßi - your daughter
              3. uñúi©uñkßi - our daughter
                1. also a man's brother's daughter or a women's sister's daughter
            2. ©uñß - my daughter (used only in direct address to the indiviudal)
            3. ©iñkß/©iñkßi - son
              1. mi©iñkßi - my son
              2. ni©iñkßi - your son
              3. uñúi©uñkßi - our son
                1. also a man's brother's son or a women's sister's son
            4. ©iñs - my son (used only in direct address to the indiviudaul.
      1. Sex of children
        1. The word "ciñ©a" - one's child may also be used but requires that the sex be indicated.
          1. ©iñ©a hokßida/hokßina - one's boy
          2. ©iñ©a koßka - one's grown up son
          3. ©iñ©a wiñyañ - one's adult daughter
          4. ©iñ©a - one's child
        2. Waíañheja - genric term for child or children also requires that the sex be indicated.
          1. Examples:
            1. waíañheja wiñciñcañna - girl child
            2. waíañheja wikoßka - grown up girl child
      2. In proper names of women
        1. To indicate the proper name of a female, "wiñ", an abbriviation of "wiñyañ" always follows it.
        2. Examples:
          1. Ptañ Waßþe Wiñ - Good Otter Woman
          2. Wiyaka wajiñna Wiñ - One Feather Women
      3. In expressing relationship
        1. In expressing relationship men have their own specific terms which they use based on the age and sex of the relative.
          1. Examples:
            1. åañúe - older sister
            2. åañkßi - younger sister
            3. ©iye - older brother
            4. åañhañ -brother in law
            5. hañúa - sister in law
        2. In expressing relationship for many terms, women have their own specific terms which they use based on the age and sex of the relative.
          1. Examples:
            1. ©uwe - older sister
            2. åañúa - younger sister
            3. åibdo - older brother
            4. ßi©e - brother in law
            5. s©eóañ - sister in law
        3. Some terms are used by both men and women in expressing relationship.
          1. Examples:
            1. åuñúaßila (fathers father or any one who father refers to as father, terms is used to express respectfull y relationship to spiritual beings and in demonstration of respect for any older men )
            2. uñ©i (mothers mother or anyone who mother refers to as mother, term is used to express respectfully relationship to earth and in demonstration of repsect for any older women)
            3. misuñ (younger brother)
            4. takoja (grandchild)

     
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