Ihanktonwan Dakota

Grammar Guide

Verbs

  1. Verbs
    1. Verbs are the most important element in the Daíoþa/Naíoþa/Laíoþa language.
    2. To use the verbs properly it is necessary to know whether they are transitive, intransitive, or reflexive.
    3. It is also important to know if they are simple, composite, or compound.
  2. Classes of Verbs
    1. Transitive Verbs (vt)
      1. Are verbs which denote action and require an object. They can not be used unless their object is mentioned or easily understood.
    2. Intransitive Verbs (vi)
      1. Are verbs which denote action or being, but do not require an objective. There are two kinds:
        1. Verbs of complete predication.
          1. Which are used by themselves as complete predicates.
            1. Examples:
              1. ißþiñma
              2. mani
          2. Transitive verbs in their absolute form, this make them verbs which state an action without indicating an object.
            1. The syllable wa is prefixed to make them absolute and incapable of taking an object.
              1. Example:
                1. wowaöi wañ yawa (he is reading a book) Wayawa. (he is reading) the wa was added therefore the object book does not have to be stated.
        2. Verbs of incomplete predication.
          1. Llinking verbs which require a predicate noun, adjective or pronoun.
            1. Some verbs are used both as transivitve and intransitive.
              1. Example
                1. nable©a (vt) to break something brittle with the foot.
                2. nable©a (vi) to crack open by itself.
            2. Some intransitive verbs become transitive when certain inseperable prepositions are prefixed.
              1. Example
                1. lowañ (vi) to sing.
                2. alowañ (vt) to sing for, in praise of.
      2. Reflexive Verbs
        1. Are verbs formed from transivitve verbs by incorporating the reflexive pronoun. There are two kinds.
          1. Reflexive verbs of complete predication
            1. Example
              1. oñåoñyañ (vt) to hurt one
              2. oñåoñi©'iya (v refl) to hurt one's self
          2. Reflexive verbs of incomplete predication
            1. They require an objective complement, either a noun or an adjective.
              1. Example
                1. wi©aßa - man and úaða (vt) to make.
                2. wi©aßa i©'i©aðe - he made himself (became man).
    3. Types of verbs
      1. Simple verbs
        1. Are prime words to which the personal pronouns are prefixed.
      2. Composite verbs
        1. Are verbs which consist of the base plus one or more prefixes or suffixes, or both. Many of these verbs have the personnal pronouns prefixed while others have them inserted.
      3. Compound verbs
        1. Are verbs in which the base and the adjunct are in themselves complete words. In some compound verbs the pronoun is prefixed and in a few of them it is even stated twice.
    4. Verb Roots
      1. The language contain many verbal roots, which are used only with certain causative prefixes.
      2. Common verbs roots are:
        1. baza (smooth)
        2. ða (open out)
        3. ðañ (open out)
    5. Verbs Formed by Modal Prefixes
      1. The modal particles ba, bo, ka, na, pa, ya, and yu are prefixed to verbal roots and to adjectives or nuter verbs making them active transitive verbs and indicating the mode and instrument of action.
        1. ba - the action is done by cutting or sawing and a knife or saw is the insturment.
        2. bo - the action is done by shooting with an arrow or a gun, by punching with a stick, or vy any instrument thrown endwise. It also expresses the action of rain or hail andis used in reference to blowing with the mouth.
    6. Verb Forms
      1. Frequentive Forms
      2. Absolute Form
      3. Possessive Form
      4. Relexive
      5. Dative
      6. Causative Form
      7. Locative Form
      8. Reciprocal
    7. Voice
      1. Transitive verbs in English and other languages, have two forms called the active and the passive voices.
        1. Active voice is the formof a verb which represents the subject as doing the action, such as I saw him.
        2. The passive voice is the form of the verb which represents the subject receiving the action, such as I was seen by John.
          1. There is no passive voice in Lakota/Dakota/Nakota. Therefore instead of saying : The boy was killed by a wolf. We must say: A wolf killed the boy. (žuñúmaniþu wañ hokßila úiñ kte.)
          2. When no mention is made of the agent, as in: I am wounded. We always use the pronoun of the third person plural: They wounded me. (Maoöi.)
    8. Person
      1. Daíoþa/Naíoþa/Laíoüa verbs have three persons; the first, second, and third, differing from each other, as a rule, by the incorporated personal pronoun only. The pronoun of the third person is not expressed but understood.
    9. Number
      1. There are three numbers; the singular, dual and plural. The dual is of the first person only, one speaker addressing another and including him in the action, being or condition. It is the same form as the first person plural, but lacks the termination. The plural is characterized by the syllable öi suffixed to the verb.
      2. But in some words of motion, referring to moving or traveling in company, the third person plural is preferrably formed bydropping the öi and instead:
        1. Prefixing a to the third person singular as in
          1. au (they are coming) instead of uöi
          2. aya (they are going) instead of yaöi
          3. ahi (they arrived ) instead of hiöi
    10. Tense
      1. The form of the verb by itself does not indicate the time of the action or being. The indefinite form may denote either present or past tense. Nor are there auxiliary verbs like English be, have, etc. The content of the sentence or the special construction must tell which is meant. Adverbs of time aare also employed to denote time.
      2. Future tense indicated by the particle kta or kte which folows the inflicted verb.
        1. u kte (he will come).
        2. uöi kte (they will come).
        3. when the verb is negative the particle ßni is placed after kte.
          1. aúisniöi kte ßni (they will not get well)
        4. When the verb terminates in a changeable a syllable the a becomes in the future tense, as in.
          1. woþiñ kte (he will eat) instead of woþa kte.
    11. Mood
      1. Moods are changes in the form or use of a verb that show the particular manner in which an assertion is made. In Daíoþa/Naíoþa/Laíoþa verb has only one form to indicate mood. That one form, with the help of certain unchangeable auxillary particles following the verb, must serve to express the various moods.
      2. The indicative is used to state fact or ask a question.
      3. The subjunctive, which expresses a thought as uncertain, is expresed by the indicative form followed by the particles.
        1. ni (indicating wish).
        2. k'eß, yuñß, tía ( indicating condition contrary to fact)
          1. if the verb is negative, the particle ßni precedes these auxiliary particles.
      4. The imperative, which presents a thought either as a command or as an entreaty, is expressed by third person singular or plural indicative, followed by certain other auxiliary particles. If the verb is negative, ßni preceds these particles.
        1. Ale giving a command to one person (singular).
          1. yo is used with the third person singular form of verbs ending in a, añ,e, i, iñ, and all verbs used with the negative ßni.
            1. ßkaþa yo - play.
            2. ayußþañ yo - leave it alone.
            3. he©oñ ßni yo - don't do that.
          2. wo with the third person singular verbs ending in o, oñ, u, and uñ, un ßni is used.
            1. u wo - come.
            2. he©oñ wo - do that.
        2. Male giving a command to more than one (plural).
          1. öo with the third person singular of any verb, when the order is positive.
            1. wiyußúiñ öo - be happy or glad.
            2. iñyañúa öo - run.
          2. yo with the third person singular of any verb, when the order is negative.
            1. he©oñöi ßni yo.
            2. heyaöi ßni yo.
        3. Female giving a command to one person (singular)
          1. ye is used with the third person singular form of verbs ending in a, añ,e, i, iñ, and all verbs used with the negative ßni.
            1. ßkaþa ye - play.
            2. ayußþañ ye - leave it alone.
            3. he©oñ ßni ye - don't do that.
          2. we with the third person singular verbs ending in o, oñ, u, and uñ, un ßni is used.
            1. u we - come.
            2. he©oñ we - do that.
        4. Male giving a command to more than one (plural).
          1. öe with the third person singular of any verb, when the order is positive.
            1. wiyußúiñ öe - be happy or glad.
            2. iñyañúa öe - run.
          2. ye with the third person singular of any verb, when the order is negative.
            1. he©oñöi ßni ye.
            2. heyaöi ßni ye.
        5. Entreaty
          1. When the speaker address one person (singular) he or she uses the third person singular followed by ye.
            1. inajiñ ye - please stand up.
            2. u yes - please come.
            3. heye ßni ye - please don't say that.
              1. If the verb terminates in a changeable a syllable, the a becomes i.
                1. woúiyaúi ye - please speak to him (instead of woúiyaúa ye).
      5. The infinitive is the same form as the third person singular indicative. It is rarely used and requires a principle verb which it preced.
        1. u maßi ( he asked me to come ) (to come he asked me)
    12. Participle
      1. The English type of participle is not found in the language.
      2. Participles are formed by
    13. Conjugation
      1. While in English, in conjugating a verb, we have a personal pronoun and a verb, bother being independ words and under going changes each themselves. Our verbs remain unchanged. Plurality is expressed by the ending öi. The various persons are indicated by the inseperable personal pronouns which are either prefixed to or inserted into the verb.
      2. Three forms of conjugation are used. They are classified according to the three different sets of inseperable subjective personnal pronouns employed with the verb.
        1. First Class of Verbs
          1. Most verbs belong to the first class of vebs. Most are transitive verbs. They use the folliwing inseperable personnal pronouns, either prefixed or inserted:
            1. wa (first person singular).
            2. ya (second person singular).
            3. -- (third person singular).
            4. uñ/uñk (dual).
            5. uñ-----öi (first person plural).
            6. ya-----öi (second person plural).
            7. _____öi (third person plural).
          2. Conjugations
        2. Second Class of Verbs
          1. The second class of verbs are those which begin with ya or yu. These prefixes convey a special meaning, although they amy be followed by other less important prefixes to further modify their meaning. The verbs of this class most are transivitve.
          2. The inseperable subjective personal pronoun for this class of verbs is formed by :
            1. bl (first person singular).
            2. l (second person singular).
            3. --- (third person singular).
            4. uñ/uñk (the dual).
            5. uñ-----öi (first person plural).
            6. l -------öi (second person plural).
            7. _____öi (third person plural).
          3. Conjugations
        3. Third Class of Verbs
          1. Verbs of the third class are mostly intransitive. Because of the fact that in form, the inseperable (incorporated ) personal pronouns they use are like the objective personnal pronouns,care must be taken so as to not cause confusion.
            1. ma (first person singular).
            2. ni (second person singular).
            3. --- (third person singular).
            4. uñ/uñk (dual).
            5. uñ/uñk------öi (first person plural).
            6. ni------öi (second person plural).
            7. ____öi (third person plural).
            8. wi©a can be used for the third person singular and the third person plural.
          2. Conjugations
    14. Irregular Verbs
    15. Defective Verbs
      1. A few verbs are defective. They can be only used in one person, either singular or plural.
    16. Impersonal Verbs
      1. Impersonal verbs are those which have no deteriminate subject and hence are used in the third person singular only
    17. Double Verbs
      1. Double words are something that is unique to the language. They are combination of teo complete predicate verbs. While the first is always one referring to arriving somewhere (such as hi - to arrive a place that is not one's own). The second tells the action which took place on arriving.
      2. In using double verbs there is some question as to which verb should be inflicted or use the personal pronoun.
      3. The inflicted verb must use a pronoun that is appriprate for it's class of verbs.
    18. Linking Verb To Be
      1. The linking verb to be is not used in the language to describe the subject.
      2. The linking verb is used when it identifies the subject.

     
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