Hohe Nakoda

Sound System & Alphabet

CLASSIFICATION OF DAKOTA/NAKOA/LAKOTA SOUNDS

Voiced Vowels

A E I O U

*Glottal stops occur when one vowel follows another but are not marked.

Nasal Vowels

Añ *Eñ Iñ Oñ Uñ

*Eñ only occurs in Daíoþa and has the sound of the English word in.
*Oñ does not occur in Laíoþa.

The ñ is used to indicate the nasal sound. These sounds are not common in English and are not part of the English alphabet. When they do occur in English the ñ is used to represent them in the pronunciation key of the dictionary but not in standard writing.

Consonant Sound Families

B Ö P Ó ÷

£ ¢ Ä

*D Þ T Å T’
*Does not occur in Laíoþa

G G’ Ú K Í K’

Ð Ü Ü’

H

J § ¹

*L
Occurs only in Laíoþa

M

N

Y

W

Z Æ S Á

Consonant Types

Voiced Consonants (Sonants)

B D G Ð J Z

J is used for the zh sound, this is how it was represented in the first writing system for Daíoþa/Naíoþa/Laíoþa. Some other Daíoþa/Naíoþa/Laíoþa writing systems use Z and some use the linguistic symbol ?. The zh sound is considered a primary phoneme in English linguistics but in standard English writing there is no consistency in how it is written.

Non-aspirated (Medial Surd)

£ Ú Ö Þ

These sounds are rare in English and are not part of its alphabet. When they do occur, no accommodation is made to distinguish them in standard English writing or in phonetic pronunciations. Although the ¤ is not that prevalent, the ú, ö, and þ occur often in Daíoþa/Naíoþa/Laíoþa. Therefore a line or macron has been placed above the letter to indicate that the sound is different than that which the letter makes in English. Naíoþa often uses the voiced sonant sound where Daíoþa/Laíoþa uses the non-aspirated medial surd sound. (ie: Daíoþa/Laíoþa ßuñúa and Naíoþa ßuñga)

Voicless [aspirated] (Surd)

¢ Ü K P S §

In English linguistics, ch and sh are considered primary phonemes. But in standard English writing and phonics they are treated as consonant digraphs. Because they are primary phonemes, in Daíoþa/Naíoþa/Laíoþa they are treated as such and are given one symbol to represent them. The ch is represented by © and the sh by ß.

Velarized (Gutteral)

(Voiced)

Ð

(Voiceless)

Ü Í Ó Å

The velarized sounds do not occur in English therefore a dot has been placed above the letter both to indicate that the sound is velarized and to tell that the sound does not occur in English.

Glottal Stops

(Voiced)

G’ Æ

(Voiceless)

¢’ Ü’ K’ P’ S’ §’ T’

English does not have glottal stops therefore an accent mark has been placed after the letter to indicate that there is a glottal stop made before saying the rest of the word and to tell that the sound does not occur in English.

Open Breath

H

Lateral

*L

Only occurs in Laíoþa

Nasal

M N

Semi Vowels

W Y

Consonant Blends

B

Bd Bl By

G

Gl Gm Gn Gw Gy

H

Hb Hd Hm Hn Hw

Ü

Üb Ü© Üd Ül Üm Ün Üp Üö Üþ Üt Üw

M

Md Mn

K

Kb K© Kd Km Kn Ks Kþ Kt

P

Ps Pß Pþ Pt

S

Sd Sl Sk Sm Sn Sp Sw St

§

§l §k §m §n §p §t §w

T

Tk


 

 
Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre