Dene

Grammar Guide

Part C: The Sentence Expanded

5. Included Clauses
Sometimes a sentence will contain what is known as an included clause. An included clause is actually just another sentence, acting as time, place, subject, object, etc. of the main sentence, or else being directly related to these elements. The included clauses may or may not begin with a relative pronoun, and may or may not end with the nominal enclitic hi .

Þqh® senay®la beæósyq ‘I know who fixed it’  
Þqh® senay®la ‘who fixed it’ Included Clause
Þqh® ‘who’ Relative Pronoun
I (from ,at the end of senay®la) Nominal Enclitic
     
Þqhü yaæé nághüyés ghes¿ü ‘I saw who broke the window’  
Þqhü yaæé nághüyés ‘who broke the window’ Included Clause
þqhü ‘who’ Relative Pronoun
I (from ) Nominal Enclitic
     
Shéth laíyé bekóp hó¿q þahúæe dejúle dódí. ‘His home is set on the hill where there are no mosquitoes’  
þahúæe dejúle dódí ‘where there are no mosquitoes’ Included Clause
þahúæe ‘where’ Relative Pronoun
    No Nominal Enclitic
     
Þahú üødzuzi n®le ha yeæólyq ‘He knows when to set traps’  
Þahú üødzuzi n®le ‘when to set traps’ Included Clause
þahu ‘when’ Relative Pronoun
    No Nominal Enclitic
     
Eyer thetü beæósyq ‘I know he is sleeping there’  
Eyer thetü ‘he is sleeping there’ Included Clause
No Relative Pronoun or Nominal Enclitic Some included clauses are followed by postpositions .
     
Dechen tile nághetéi hoæe datheda ‘He is sitting on the broken box’  
Dechen tile nághetéi ‘the broken box’ Included Clause
I (from i ) Nominal Enclitic
hoæe ‘on’ Postposition
     
Hegha hoba sejä ‘He/she is ready to go’  
Hegha ha ‘to go/for going’ Included Clause
ha ‘for’ Postposition
     
Sometimes the postposition immediately follows the relative pronoun.
Þahúæe eghálana hotßén nada ‘He is going to where he works’  
Þahúæe eghálana ‘to where he works’ Included Clause
þahúæe ‘where’ Relative Pronoun
hotßén ‘towards’ Postposition
     
Þahoþá yeøtsü yeæólyq híle ‘he doesn’xt know what he made it with’  
Tahí hoþá yeøtsü with what he made it’ Included Clause
Hoþá ‘what’ Relative Pronoun
Þahí ‘with’ Postposition
 
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