Part C: The Sentence Expanded
2. Adverbial Elements
sentences begin with a sequence marker. This is usually
the one word kú eyer ¿ú
. This word is used more frequently than any other in the
language and is used extensively in story telling.
| Kú eyer
¿ú deneyu nahéja
the man started back again’
|Kú eyer ¿ú
bér hoghq shétü
he ate the meat’
|Ku eyer ¿ú,
to mean ‘so, and, next’, etc
Many sentences incorporate a time element such as
tthüdziné hoæe ‘yesterday’,
‘just now’, æaødqné
‘already’, etc. These will probably occur in
one of three orders.
In the formal
style used in story telling, the time element is frequently
found occurring ahead of the subject.
then I bought a dog’
eyer æodhere eghálana hoæénü
boss was working there yesterday’
style the time element is frequently found occurring after
|Deneyu æabü dé
man will go tomorrow’
| deneyu ¿aøç
man wants more tea’ (still wants tea)
time element is removed to the end of the sentence. This
is sometimes done when more than one adverbial element occurs.
Sometimes it seems to be done arbitrarily.
deneyu eyer nádher ni.
man was staying there yesterday’
bqhocvazé habaya ni.
ran away from his mother
The place element is also present in many sentences. This
is indicated by such words as eyer
‘there’, ejq ‘here’,
yuwé- ‘there’, and by post-positional
constructions such as beæe
The place element often occurs following the subject, or
the time element, if the time element is in the conversation
position between the subject and object.
|Deneyu eyer nádher.
man is staying there’
erit´ís tili hoæe dat´áréda.
man is still resting on the box’
Just as the time
element is sometimes removed to the end of the sentence,
so it is with the place element.
| Chelekwaze ¿aøç
nu hosþén ghekel
boy is still paddling to the island’
|Deneyu ejq yéøtsü
man made it here’
A number of other adverbial ideas also occur such as manner,
accompaniment, benefit, etc. These are indicated by such
words as hçt´édhé
‘very much’,‘in a hurry’, üghä,
and by post-positional constructions such as þá
‘along with’, hoghq
‘about’, etc. These may occur following the
made it there with wood’
man made it in a hurry’
These also can be removed to the end of the sentence.
tthpø hoþá kon nadáretthéø
man is chopping firewood with my axe’