Grammar Guide

Part B: The Verb

13. Supplementary Pronouns
There is an order of prefixes that occurs between the adver-bial prefixes we have just studied and the direct object. These we have called supplementary pronouns, of which there are two; viz. , tßé the indefinite personal pronoun, and ho , the time-place-abstract pronoun.

The indefinite pronoun tßé indicates an unspecified subject, frequently translated into English by the word ‘one’.

yálgus ‘He is jumping’
yaílgos ‘One jumps’
shétü ‘He eats’
shécvetü ‘One eats’
nádher ‘He stays’
nátßedher ‘One stays’

There is some uncertainty as to the use of the pronoun tßé , so that the above statement is not necessarily complete.

The abstract pronoun ho indicates abstract ideas as well as those of time and place. The exact use of this pronoun is also uncertain, but it is probably most easily learned as part of the verb.

ho¿q ‘It is located’ (high tone is from perfective the)
holnü ‘He is telling a story’

The prefix ho does not occur freely with all verbs, but seems to be limited because of meaning to certain ones.

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