Dene

Grammar Guide

Part B: The Verb

8. The Perfective Prefix - / gh /
The perfective is indicated in other verbs by a prefix / ghe / occurring before the subject pronoun. This prefix appears in third person as / ghe / if the classifier is 1 or d , and it appears as / ghi / if the classifier is or if there is no classifier.

yálgus 'He is jumping'
yaghílgos 'He jumped'
or
nánadher 'He is staying again'
nánaghedher 'He stayed again'
or
hetsagh 'He is crying'
ghütsagh 'He cried'
or
yaøti 'He is talking'
yaghüøti 'He talked'

In second person forms perfective / ghe / requires nasalization as the subject pronoun, the same as perfective / the / .

ghütsagh 'You (sing.) cried'
yálgus 'You (sing.) jumped'

Sometimes verbs having perfective / ghe / are identical in second and third person singular and cannot be recognized except by context.

nághüdher 'He stayed'
nághüdher 'You stayed'
or
ghütsagh 'He cried'
ghütsagh 'You cried'

In first person forms, when classifiers 1 or d are present, perfective / ghe / requires subject pronoun s , the same as perfective the

yaghílgos 'He jumped'
yaghísgos ‘I jumped'
¿asié ghedq 'He drank something'
¿asié ghesdq 'I drank something'

In first person forms, when classifier ø is present, or there is no classifier present, perfective / ghe / requires subject pronoun i , the same as perfective / the / .

nághüdher 'He stayed'
nághidher ‘I stayed'
or
yaghüøti ‘he talked'
yaghiøti 'I talked'

First and second person dual forms with perfective / ghe / are formed regularly the same as imperfective / he / and perfective / the /.

nághíddher 'We (2) stayed'
nághuther 'You (2) stayed'
or
yághílgus 'We (2) jumped'
yághuøgus 'You (2) jumped'

 
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