Dene

Grammar Guide

Part B: The Verb

16. Number Prefix - / dá / and Adverbial Prefixes, Class I
The prefix dá always occurs immediately after the following Class I adverbial prefixes:

nátser ‘He is strong’
  narátser ‘They (pl) are strong’
háyüluth ‘He pulled it out’
  háyehüluth ‘They (pl) pulled it out’
ha hathíl¿q ‘We (2) have it’
  hathíøya ‘We (pl) have it’
yálgus ‘He is jumping’
  yarálgus 'They (pl) are jumping’
níyanílti ‘We (2) stutter’
  nídáyanílti ‘We (pl) stutter’
da dathít´ ‘We (2) set it’
  dadáthit´ ‘We (pl) set it’
níthíjq ‘We (2) are full grown’
  nídáníjq ‘We (pl) are full grown’
edí edíníju ‘We (2) are chasing it away’
  edídáníníju ‘We (pl) are chasing it away’
Æá Æóril¿a ‘We are taking our time’
  Æádóreø¿a ‘we (pl) are taking our time’
Cvá Cvóríl¿ü ‘we are making faces’
  Cvádóreø¿ü ‘we are (pl) making faces’
Tßé tßíltuí ‘we are smoking’
  tßédáhíltuí ‘we are (pl) smoking’
Se Senay®lá ‘he/she fixed it’
  Sedánay®lá ‘they (pl) fixed it’
tínínínju ‘We are chasing him/her out’
  tídáníníju ‘we are (pl) chasing him/her out'
Dzé Dzéniju ‘we are chasing him/her around’
  Dzédániju ‘we (pl) are chasing him/her around’
Daghe Daghéhíl¿a ‘we are laying on our backs’
  Daghédáhíl¿a ‘we (pl) are laying on our backs’
Doghá Dogháhíþá ‘we are hanging it up’
  Doghádáhíþá ‘we (pl) are hanging it up’
A,á,q,ä qnaþe he/she is finished’
A,á,q,ä adánaþe ‘they (pl) are finished’
The class I adverbial prefixes listed above always occur first in the verb. Some meanings are easily discovered such as ha’out of’ yá ‘up’. The meanings of some others of these adverbial prefixes are not so easily discerned.

These prefixes, if present, will occur first in the verb, but this may be qualified by the presence of a pronoun and postposition combination, or even just a postposition, which sometimes is fused to the first of the verb.

If there is a pronoun and postposition construction present, whether fused to the verb or not, the prefix dá always occurs following the postposition.

deæewuþer ‘Let’s (2) untie it’
deæedáwuþer ‘Let’s (pl) untie it’
or
eghálana ‘He is working’
eghádálana ‘They (pl) are working’
or
yekáneta ‘He is looking for him’
yekádáneta ‘They (pl) are looking for him’

If these prefixes are not present, the prefix dá will occur at the first of the verb.

delgaí ‘It is white’
dáregaí ‘They are white’
or
nakí ‘He is going’(on water)
dánahekí ‘They (pl) are going’

Note that plural prefix dá occurring between two syllables irregularly becomes , as in narálzé ‘They (pl) are hunting’. Note also that prefix dá , when followed or preceded by prefix ho or hu becomes do.

honílten ‘We (2) are teaching him’
hadónílten ‘We (pl) are teaching him’
or
huhjen ‘You (2) are singing’
dóhjen ‘you (pl) are singing’

 
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