Grammar Guide

Part B: The Verb

12. Adverbial Prefixes, Class II
There is an order of prefixes occurring just before the modal prefixes (those which show imperfective, perfective, and optative mode). These are called adverbial prefixes. These prefixes help to establish the basic meaning of the verb, and are most easily learned as part of the verb. The meaning of each of these prefixes is not always clear, although in some cases we can be fairly confident of it. The following is a list of the more common of these prefixes.

Te/he—starting to move horizontally

Hegha híjá ‘He is starting to go’

gh—moving horizontally

ghegal ‘He is walking’

de/ne—condition or state

delgaí ‘It is white’
nechá ‘It is big’

—action done quickly

híøchú ‘I took it’

hu—repetition of an individual act

hus¿eth ‘I am kicking him again and again

—a series of unanalyzable acts

enéøkq ‘She is sewing’

¿o—no meaning

¿orél¿ü ‘he wants it’

—no meaning

yedáhárü¿q ‘He plugged it’

—no meaning

yeríttvagh ‘He hears it’

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