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Article: Hohe Production

As described by First Boy - James Larpentuer Long, Fort Peck Assiniboine-Sioux, in The Assiniboine: From Accounts of the Old Ones Told to First Boy (James Larpenteur Long), edited by Michael Stephen Kennedy , University of Oklahoma Press, 1961, p 92-93 (originally published as Land of the Nakoda by the Montana Writer Program in 1942)

In the early days old men made articles of stone as a pastime as well as for things that were needed.

From hard rocks they made such things as chokecherry and dried-meat mashers, hones, and clubs to be used in warfare. Clubs and hammers were made from round stones, which were grooved around the middle to hold handles that were sometimes incased in rawhide. The flat rocks used as anvils were natural ones selected for that purpose.

A soft, grayish rock, similar to the red pipestone found in Min-nesota, was made into pipes. Pipes were used for ceremonials or on war parties, in the guest lodges, and by the people generally.

After a pipe was fashioned and finished, it was covered with tallow and passed back and forth, slowly, through the flames. As the fat melted away, more was put on until the blackened grease penetrated the stonework. When it was entirely colored, the pipe was laid away to cool and was later polished to a high gloss.

Kitchen utensils were made from large clamshells. Turtlebacks were smoothed out and used for cups. Plates were more or less flattened pieces of wood.

The horns of elk were made into whipstocks. The men always carried whips, which hung from their wrists by loops and were also used as clubs.

Women fashioned horns into hoe-shaped tools that were used to scrape the hair off hides and skins.

Shields for warfare were made from the thick hide that covers the hump of the buffalo. When finished, they were decorated with paint and feathers.

Ropes were made of buffalo hide, cut around and around until the desired lengths were obtained. They were stretched and dried, then made pliable. A three-strand rope was made with smaller strips. Hair ropes were spun from the long hair of buffaloes.

Bags stuffed with deer hair and made into saddles were used by the old men. Stirrups were made of bent willows incased in rawhide.

Women made many sizes of folding food bags from untanned hides with the hair removed. They were decorated with colored paints in different designs and patterns. Large dried-meat sacks with drawstring tops were made from coarse hides that were partly tanned.

Only the women tanned hides and skins. Sometimes very large buffalo hides were first cut in two and the pieces tanned sep-arately after which they were sewed together with sinew thread.

The intestines of bears were blown full of air and dried. Later, when rumpled they became white and soft, resembling cloth. This material was used for ribbons, edging, and various things which required such material.