described by First Boy - James Larpentuer Long, Fort Peck
Assiniboine-Sioux, in The Assiniboine: From Accounts of
the Old Ones Told to First Boy (James Larpenteur Long),
edited by Michael Stephen Kennedy , University of Oklahoma
Press, 1961, p 92-93 (originally published as Land of
the Nakoda by the Montana Writer Program in 1942)
the early days old men made articles of stone as a pastime
as well as for things that were needed.
hard rocks they made such things as chokecherry and dried-meat
mashers, hones, and clubs to be used in warfare. Clubs
and hammers were made from round stones, which were grooved
around the middle to hold handles that were sometimes
incased in rawhide. The flat rocks used as anvils were
natural ones selected for that purpose.
soft, grayish rock, similar to the red pipestone found
in Min-nesota, was made into pipes. Pipes were used for
ceremonials or on war parties, in the guest lodges, and
by the people generally.
a pipe was fashioned and finished, it was covered with
tallow and passed back and forth, slowly, through the
flames. As the fat melted away, more was put on until
the blackened grease penetrated the stonework. When it
was entirely colored, the pipe was laid away to cool and
was later polished to a high gloss.
utensils were made from large clamshells. Turtlebacks
were smoothed out and used for cups. Plates were more
or less flattened pieces of wood.
horns of elk were made into whipstocks. The men always
carried whips, which hung from their wrists by loops and
were also used as clubs.
fashioned horns into hoe-shaped tools that were used to
scrape the hair off hides and skins.
for warfare were made from the thick hide that covers
the hump of the buffalo. When finished, they were decorated
with paint and feathers.
were made of buffalo hide, cut around and around until
the desired lengths were obtained. They were stretched
and dried, then made pliable. A three-strand rope was
made with smaller strips. Hair ropes were spun from the
long hair of buffaloes.
stuffed with deer hair and made into saddles were used
by the old men. Stirrups were made of bent willows incased
made many sizes of folding food bags from untanned hides
with the hair removed. They were decorated with colored
paints in different designs and patterns. Large dried-meat
sacks with drawstring tops were made from coarse hides
that were partly tanned.
the women tanned hides and skins. Sometimes very large
buffalo hides were first cut in two and the pieces tanned
sep-arately after which they were sewed together with
intestines of bears were blown full of air and dried.
Later, when rumpled they became white and soft, resembling
cloth. This material was used for ribbons, edging, and
various things which required such material.