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Article: Origin & Structure of the Hohe

As described by First Boy - James Larpentuer Long, Fort Peck Assiniboine-Sioux, in The Assiniboine: From Accounts of the Old Ones Told to First Boy (James Larpenteur Long), edited by Michael Stephen Kennedy , University of Oklahoma Press, 1961, p 15 (originally published as Land of the Nakoda by the Montana Writer Program in 1942)

In the very early days the whole Assiniboine tribe of Indians was in one band. As the population increased, the distribution of game killed for meat became a problem. There were com-plaints from families who did not get their share, and often there was not enough to go around to every lodge.

It was for that reason that families, with their near relatives, gradually moved away from the main band. They roamed and hunted as they chose, even though there was the danger of an attack from the enemy. As their small groups increased in size, they naturally formed separate bands.

In time there were enough people in each band to set up the different societies and have their own dances and other amuse-ments. A chief and headman finally made a band complete.

The separate groups lived alone and each occupied a district. The different locations of the bands brought about many new habits; and costumes were adopted which were most suitable to the country occupied. In that way the habits and costumes differed among the bands.

While those who moved away were looked upon by the original band as deserters, there was still a friendly feeling between them.

As it formed into a regular band, each group was given a name by the people who did not move away. Some of the names suggested the kind of country the people lived in, such at Ptegam-bina, Swamp People; Osnibi, People of the Cold; and Hebina, Rock Mountain People. Other bands were given names to ridi-cule or reprimand them for their dress or habits of living, such as Cantidada, Moldy People; or Wazinazinyibi, Fat Smokers.