First recorded references to the O©eti §aúowiñ
is made in the Jesuit Relations by Jean Nicolette who had
visited the in their territory in 1634-35.
The O©eti §aúowiñ took in a band
of Hurons who had fled from the Iroqoiuse.
French explorers Pierre Espirit Radisson and Medard Chouart
and Sieur de Groseillliers and others, who had spent a miserable
winter of near starvation on Chequamegon Bay on Lake Superior,
in the spring were invited, by eight Dakota emissaries,
to attend a Feast of the Dead. The invitation was accepted
and their report was first included in Jesuit Relations
Father Hennepen reached the source of the Mississippi River
in 1682 and at that time claimed all of the Mississippi
Valley in the name of France.
The O©eti §aúowiñ were visited by
Father Claude Allouez
Father Marquettee negotiated a peace between the O©eti
§aúowiñ and their neighbors the Ojibwe,
Ssax, Fox, Illinois and others. That peace lasted until
After being provoked by their neighbours the O©eti
§aúowin returned Marquette’s presents
and went to war with their neighbours.
Marquette and Joliet “discover” the Upper Mississippi
River and describe its vast reach. Their ‘discovery”
dashes hope for a water road to the Pacific Ocean.
O©eti §aúowiñ sent a delegation
to Sault Saint Marie to participate in peace negations at
the Jesuit Mission. While there the Ojibwe attacked them
and burned the church.
A Band of Isañti captured Father Hennepin who they
met on the Mississippi that spring, they kept him until
fall when they released him to Pierre Deluth.
LaSalle claims the Mississippi River Valley for France by
declaring the claim at the mouth of the river near what
is now New Orleans. What becomes known as “The Louisiana
Territory” is ostensibly under French rule.
Le Sueur built a fort on “Isle Pele” near Treasure
Island and the mouth of the St. Croix River near Red Wing
and Nicholas Perot built one on the south end of the lake.
The most confusing accounts of a French fort location is
that of Fort Beauharnias (pronounced “born - wah”),
which was also known as “The Sioux Post,” and
was built in 1727 by Rene Boucher on a site along the banks
of the lake. It was abandoned after a year, but was rebuilt
and occupied in 1730 to 1737 and again in 1750 to 1759.
LeSueur took Chippewa Chief Chingouabe and Dakota Chief
Tiyoßkaþe to Montreal to meet with Govenor de
Frontenac. While there Chief Tiyoßkaþe died
and is buried in downtown old Montreal.
The French assisted the O©eti §aúowiñ
in a war against the Fox and got themselves in a conflict
hated 40 years. Before the end the O©eti §aúowiñ
and the French turned on each other. The O©eti §aúowiñ
then gave refuge to the defeated Fox who by that time were
very few in number.
Members of the O©eti §aúowiñ murdered
killed Verendrye the younger and all of his party of 20
at Lake of the Woods.
The Fox made peace with the O©eti §aúowiñ
and between the O©eti §aúowiñ and
French and Indian War. English defeated the French and took
possession of entire Northeast by 1763.
After the fall of Canada, the English and the O©eti
§aúowiñ enter make a treaty for friendship
The British took control of the land around Lake Pepin.
Royal Proclamation, with the end of the Seven Years War
between Britain and France, the conditions of peace were
spelled out in the Treaty of Paris. The terms of peace gave
Britain title to various new territories in America. In
order to manage these territorial acquisitions a Royal Proclamation
was decreed. In Canada, the Proclamation is the basis of
our understanding of the legal nature of Indian title and
an historical root of the treaty process. Its provisions
underlie the surrenders and designations of reserve land,
which still take place pursuant to the Indian Act.
Jonathan Carver , the first English explorer came into Isañti
territory. The first English explorer in this area was Jonathan
Carver, who arrived in the winter of 1766 and stay into
the summer of 1767. He was the first white to canoe down
the Chippewa River and later published notes and maps about
this area in England. He produced a document stating that
a large tract of land was given to him by the Sioux. It
included all of the land East of the Mississippi River for
200 miles below St. Anthony Falls, then 120 miles East to
the source of the Pine River, and then 150 miles North and
then a straight line back to the falls. The document is
still available for research, but his claim was never honoured
British give back control of Indian Affairs to the colonies.
Ojibwe ambushed a Isañti canoe fleet with a crew
of 500 warriors near the confluence of the Mississippi and
Crow Wing Rivers with a smaller number of men. The Ojibwe
killed many Isañti.
The Quebec Act, Under the terms of peace agreed to in the
Treaty of Paris, Britain gained full control over New France,
which became known as Quebec. With rebellions in the colonies
to the South, which would later form the beginnings of the
United States, the British worried that the French might
not be in favour of supporting them.
The Continental Congress establishes a Committee on Indian
Affairs, appointing commissioners to create peace treaties
with the Indians.
Aware that the American were going to revolted, the British
struggled hard but were successful in getting the Ojibwe
and the O©eti §aowiñ to make a peace treaty
and stay at peace until after the American Revolution. Both
tribe fought in support of the British.
Declaration of Independence. Allegation made that King George
III has not helped the colonists deal with difficulties
with the “savages of the interior” referring
to conflict with Native Americans.
Continental Congress made first treaty with Indians (Delawares).
Dakota Chief Wabasha was commissioned as a general in the
Northwest Company was organized, the Company changed the
Machinac Company or General Company of Lake Superior. This
company competed for Dakota trade.Too many traders, declinging
European prices and too little organization hindered the
companies efforts, the company eventually broke up in 1788
Northwest Ordinance, the final of four Ordinances was adopted
by the Confederation Congress sitting in its last session,
in 1787. In sum, the Northwest Ordinance dealt with the
territory aquired from Great Britain in the aftermath of
the war---land north of the Ohio River and east of Mississippi.
It made four crucial promises to prospective states in this
region. First, that each would enter the union "on
an equal footing with the original states." Second,
that revenue generated from the sale of a portion of each
township in the state would go to fund public education---the
first instance of federal aid for education in American
history. Third, "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude"
were to be allowed. And four, that a good faith effort would
be made to respect the Indians in the territory.
United States Constitution is adopted by the Constitutional
Convention in Philadelphia. Ratification by the states occurs
in 1789 when New Hampshire becomes the ninth state of the
original thirteen to ratify the Constitution. Article I
grants power to Congress to “regulate commerce among
the states . . . and with the Indian tribes.”
United States Constitution ratified by the states; Indian
Congress enacted first law regulating trade and land sales
Indian Trade and Intercourse Act, the stated purpose of
this act was to protect against unscrupulous white traders,
control liquor traffic in Indian country and provide a way
to remove renegade white desperados from Indian country.
The Trade and Intercourse Acts (the last being passed in
1834) operated to restrict the exercise of Indian sovereign
powers through the influence of the US government in Indian
country. What occurred was an extension of federal criminal
jurisdiction to offenses involving non-Indians in Indian
territory. (The act also regulated land transactions in
Indian country. Act of June 30, 1834, 4 Stat. 738, 25 U.S.C.
¤ 9) These first steps set the pattern and established
a foundation for later broader intrusions upon Indian self-government,
even though Congress apparently realized it had no right
to do so. For an explanation of congressional intent in
passing the Trade and Intercourse Act of 1834, see H.R.
Rep. No. 474, 23rd Cong., 1st Sess., 5(1834):"It is
rather of courtesy than of right that we undertake to punish
crimes committed in that Indian territory by and against
our own citizens. And this provision is retained principally
on the ground that it may be unsafe to trust Indian law
in the early stages of their government. . . ." (Emphasis
added). The admission by Congress that the US had no right
to punish crimes in Indian country acknowledges that the
United States had no jurisdictional authority there.
Bill of Rights (First Ten Amendments) to the United States
Constitution is adopted by Congress. Ratified by the states
in 1793. First Amendment protects religious liberty by prohibit
legislation to “establish” religion or prohibit
“free exercise” of religion. This limitation
on Congress is not extended to the states until judicial
decision in the early 20th Century though an interpretation
of the Fourteenth Amendment (1868).
Act (1791) an act of the British Parliament that repealed
certain parts of the Quebec Act of 1774 and effectively
divided the colony into two provinces. What had previously
been known, as the colony of "The Province of Quebec"
Jay Treaty Treaty between the English and the Americans
after the Revolutionary War, contains clause at end: Indians
can cross Canada-U.S. border freely without interference
by customs, duties, etc on either side. No other mention
of responsibilities to Indian allies, their lands either
side. Canada refuses to recognise this Treaty.
French traders and trappers from St. Louis began to come
into Ihañktoñwañ and Titoñwañ
There are an estimated 60 million buffalo on the Plains.
Federal Law prohibits the sale of liquor to Indians.
Congress appropriates funds to “educate” and
“civilize” the Indians.
April 30th, Louisiana Purchase. President Thomas Jefferson
concludes a treaty with the French in which the United States
purchases the “Louisiana Territory” from France.
Jefferson regarded this as his greatest achievement. It
doubles the land mass of the United States overnight, fuels
the controversy over slavery in the states and ignites interest
in westward expansion.
To take advantage of established trade networks. trading
posts were established throughout the West after the Louisiana
Purchase Fur trading becomes an important part of Lakota
life. The Lakota tribes asserted their territorial rights
and control to cover most of the current regions known as
North and South Dakota, westward to the Big Horn Mountains
in Wyoming and south to the Platte River in Nebraska.
The numerous bands of O©eti §aúowiñ
met the Lewis and Clark expedition at various points during
their travels through O©eti §aúowiñ
Lieutenant Zebulon Pike visited the Isañti and other
tribes along the upper Mississippi. He negotated the first
US Treaty with the O©eti §aúowiñ
in the vacintiy of present day St. Paul. On September 23,
the Isanti Chiefs signed the treaty giving the US land to
build a military fort (Fort Snelling). At the time the Isanti
gave up their British flags and medals in exchange for American
Office of Superintendent of Indian Trade is established
to oversee Indian trading posts.
Manuel Lisa, a Creole-Spaniard from St. Louis founded the
American Fur Company and estalbished his first headquarters
at Cedar island in the Missouri River below present day
Pierre. Latter he moved it farther down river near present
day Chamberlain. In time he operated several trading in
Ó©ceti §aúowiñ territory
and established a good relationship with the people. He
was appointed the first US Government Agent for the upper
War of 1812
The British recruit various Bands of the O©eti §aúowiñ
to fight on their behalf in the War of 1812. Robert Dickson,
a Britsh trader married to a an Isañti woman is successful
in securing the support of the Isañti bands and a
number of others.
Maneul Lisa was able to keep a number of Yankton, Yanktonia,
and Titonwan bands from joining n the War of 1812.
December 24, 1814 Treaty of Ghent
The US negotiates a series of treaties with the O©eti
§aúowiñ member bands to re-establish
peace and friendship between the United States and them
and in every respect to be on the same footing upon which
they stood before the late war between the United States
and Great Britain,
American traders began to compete with Native American tribes
for the buffalo fur business.
First appropriation ($10,000) to civilize Indians.
Manuel Lisa died at Fort Manual Lisa near present day Kenel
on the Standing Reservation.
Fort Snelling was built in Minneappolis.
Indian Trading Posts were abolished in the United States
Indian Agent Teliaferro took a delegation of Sioux, Chippewa,
and Minominee Indians on the first of a series of visits
to Washington D.C. No treaty was signed but it gave them
a chance to see the numbers and strength of the Whitman.
Also it set the stage for peace negotiations at Prairrie
The U.S. Secretary of War establishes the Bureau of Indian
Affairs (BIA), which does not receive congressional authorisation
In Territory in the United is defined as being all territory
west of the Mississippi.
A treaty is established between the U.S. and the Oglala
branch of the Teton Sioux (Lakota) regarding fur trade,
signed for the Oglala by Standing Buffalo (aka Standing
Bull). The 1825 treaty states that the Sioux and Oglala
“...reside within the territorial limits of the United
States, acknowledge their supremacy, and claim their protection.
The said bands also admit the right of the United States
to regulate all trade...”
Influenza epidemic among tribes of British Columbia. In
1830-33, there are outbreaks of European diseases in California
Indian Removal Act is passed, relocating eastern Indians
to the west of the Mississippi
Treaty With The Yankton, Santee Bands, Omahaws,, Etc- This
treaty was for land cession, in addition the treaty established
a buffer between the Sioux and the Sauk and Foxes and a
reserve for Dakota half breeds.
Geroge Catlin travels with the Sioux and other tirbes of
the plains. During his stay he made many paintings that
documented the O©eti §aúowiñ lifestyle.
In addition he kept a journal.
Sitting Bull was born in the Grand River territory
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 30 U.S. (5 Pet.) 1 Chief Justice
John Marshall, writing for the United States Supreme Court,
holds that the Cherokee people are a “domestic dependent
nation” and not a foreign nation under United States
law. This effectively places the Indian people in the status
of a subject ward in relation to the federal government.
This status is reflected in the actions by the federal government
over the years to come in which Indian lands are sharply
reduced through a variety of means by the action of the
Worcester v. Georgia, 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 515. United States
Supreme Court holds that state law does not apply on Indian
land. This leads to invalidation of anti-Cherokee laws passed
by the State of Georgia. It does not, however, provide any
protection for Indian people from United States federal
Missouri River Expedition of two Europeans, Prince Maximilian
and the painter Karl Bodmer.
Congress reorganizes the Indian offices, creating the U.S.
Department of Indian Affairs (still within the War Department).
The Trade and Intercourse Act redefines the Indian Territory
and Permanent Indian Frontier, and gives the army the right
to quarantine Indians.
U.S. Department of Indian Affairs Act redefines Indian Territory.
U.S. army is given right to quarantine Indians.
Four thousand Oglala people relocate to Fort Laramie to
boost their fur trade with white people
The Oglala become more centrally organized with most bands
following Bull Bear with many of the rest following Smoke.
This was a change from their previous more loosely governed
bands with many leaders of comparable influence. The Bear
Butte area in western South Dakota, extending west to Devil’s
Tower was the geographic and spiritual center of their world.The
Oglala needed a base which provided access to the southern
buffalo herds upon which their lifestyle depended. The area
at the joining of the Laramie and North Platte Rivers was
optimum for their needs. Simultaneously the fur trading
companies were pushing westward along the Indian trading
routes. William Sublette also realized that the region near
the joining of the Laramie and North Platte Rivers was an
ideal site for a trading post. He realized that the beaver
were almost gone and that buffalo hides would become a major
trade item. He established a post he called Fort William
(later to be Fort Laramie) as a trade center. Hoping to
compete with the American Fur Company (owned by John Jacob
Astor), he sent messengers to the Oglala encouraging them
to trade at Fort Laramie. Bull Bear moved 4,000 Oglala to
Fort Laramie and made this area the center of Oglala activity
for the next 40 years. Bull Bear brought his band the next
year. Subsequently Sublette sold the Fort to the American
Fur Company. While the Oglala drove other tribes from the
Fort Laramie area, other Sioux bands would spend time in
the area. By the 1860’s many Brulé bands moved
to the area.
Regular missions were established among the Isañti
by the Congressgational Church, one at Lake Calhoune in
Minneappolis, one at Lake Harriet, and one at Lac qui Parle.
At least four samll pox epidemics ravaged the O©eti
§aúowiñ. In the winter 1837-38 epidemic
allegely to have been caused by a steamer on the Missouri
River. The epidemic spread among all tirbes of the upper
Missouri, it is estimated that 230,000 Indians died, many
of them members of the O©eti §aúowiñ.
Four land session treaties are negotiated with Ißañti
Lutherans established a mission for he Isanti at Red Wing.
The Catholics began mission work among the Titonwañ
The Isañti sold the last of the O©eti §aúowiñ
rights to territory east of the Mississippi River.
George Armstrong Custer was born.
Father De Smet’s first journey west contacted Yanktons.
Continued journeys until death in 1873.
Union Act The British Parliament reunited Upper and Lower
Canada under the Union Act, creating the Province of Canada.
The British made the decision to reunite the two provinces
into one, 49 years after the Constitutional Act was passed
to separate them. Parliament approved the act.
Catholics set up a mission for the Isanti in St. Paul.
An increasing flow of emigrants to Oregon and California
bring cholera, smallpox, and measles to the Indians as well
as accelerated buffalo hunting for the fur trade.
Crazy Horse was born
Oregon Country becomes part of the United States as a result
of a settlement with England.
Paul Kane travels among and paints Indians of southern Canada
and the American Northwest.
Mormon settlers reach site of present-day Salt Lake City.
Gold is discovered in California - the California Gold Rush
begins, increasing western expansion across former Native
The U.S. government purchased Fort Laramie from the American
Fur Company and brought troops in.
Bureau of Indian Affairs transferred from the War Department
to the Department of the Interior.
The Courthouse Rebellion in Canada, involving the Metis
of the Red River.
The first of a series of treaties between Canada and Canadian
tribes are enacted, a policy continuing until 1923.
July 23 in the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux, Two bands of
Dakota cede to the U.S. lands in southwestern portions of
the Minnesota Territory (as well as portions of Iowa and
South Dakota) for $1.665 million in cash and annuities
August 5, In the Treaty of Mendota, Two other band of Dakota
cede to the U.S. lands in southeastern portions of the Minnesota
Territory for $1.41 million in cash and annuitities.
Summer, 7,000 Dakota are moved to two reservations bordering
the Minnesota River in southwestern Minnesota.
The Fort Laramie Treaty was signed with the Lakota, Cheyenne,
Arapaho and other Plains tribes delineating the extent of
their territories and allowing passage across these territories
in exchange for payments to the tribes. The extent of Lakota
and Nakota territories were clearly described. Thus began
the incursions of miners and wagon trains on the Oregon
and later the Bozeman trails, few at first but an onslaught
after the end of the Civil War.
August 17, Grattan Affair in Wyoming, 29 soildier were killed
while tyring to arrest Brule warriors who had killed and
eaten an emigrants cow. All evidence inidcates that the
attitude an dindiscretion of Lutinent Gratton caused the
Because of the Gratton affiar the Brule were declared hostile.
Subsequently the Sioux have first encounter with white military
forces. First outbreak of armed hostilities between the
United States Government and Plains Indians (Brule and Lakota).
One-hundred-thirty Brule warriors are killed. Others taken
into custody at Fort Laramie.
End of Indian removal policy
September 3, Colonel William Harney uses 1300 soldiers to
massacre an entire Brulé village in retribution for
the killing of 30 soldiers who were killed in retribution
for the killing of the Brulé chief, Conquering Bear,
in a dispute over a cow.
Spring, a renegade band of Dakota, under the leadership
of Inkpaduta, kill forty Americans in northwest Iowa in
what is called “the Spirit Lake Massacre.” They
captured four white women, two were latter killed and the
remaining two were rescued by other Ißañti.
Dakota leaders on a diplomatic visit to Washington D.C.
are told they did not own the reservation land. Faced with
more debt and threatened with expulsion, they are forced
to sell the northern half of their reservation.
Yankton Sioux sold all their land except the Pipestone quarry
and the lands set aside for their reservation in southeastern
Colorado Gold Rush
Reverand Samuel Henman started an Episcopal mission for
US Civil War
The Confederate government organizes a Bureau of Indian
Affairs. Most tribes remain neutral. The South, however,
makes promises to Indians concerning the return of their
tribal lands to encourage their support. After the war,
as punishment for their support of the Confederacy, the
Five Civilized Tribes are compelled to accept a treaty relinquishing
the western half of the Indian Territory to 20 tribes from
Kansas and Nebraska.
August, Annuity payments are late and rumors circulate that
payments, if they will be made at all, will not be in the
customary gold because of the ongoing Civil War. Dakota
plan to demand that future annuity payments be made directly
to them, rather than through traders. Traders, learning
of plan, refuse to sell provisions on credit, despite widespread
hunger and starvation on the reservation. At a meeting called
by Indian Agent Thomas Galbraith to resolve the impasse,
Andrew Myrick, spokesman for the traders, says: “So
far as I am concerned, if they are hungry, let them eat
August 17, Four Dakota kill five settlers near Litchfield.
Councils are held among the Dakota on whether to wage war.
Despite deep divisions on the issue, war is the chosen course.
August 18, Groups of Dakota kill 44 Americans in attacks
on the Redwood Agency and on federal troops advancing to
the Agency in the hope of suppressing the uprising. Ten
Americans are captured.
August 19, Minnesota Governor Ramsey appoints Col. Henry
Sibley to command American volunteer forces.Sixteen settlers
are killed in Dakota attacks in and around New Ulm. Settlers
crowd into a small barricaded area of New Ulm’s main
August 20-21, Dakota attack Fort Ridgely, but the Fort is
August 23, About 650 Dakota attack New Ulm a second time.
Most buildings in the town are burned. Although 34 die and
60 are wounded, the town is successfully defended
August 25, About 2,000 New Ulm refugees (mostly women, children,
and wounded men) load into 153 wagons or set off on foot
for Mankato, thirty miles away.
September 2, In the Battle of Birch Coulee (near Morton),
American troops suffer their greatest casualties of the
September 6, Major General John Pope, having recently lost
the Battle of Bull Run, is appointed commander of U.S. troops
in the Northwest, charged with suppressing the Dakota uprising
September 23, The battle of Wood Lake is a decisive victory
for American troops. While the Wood Lake fighting is in
progress, Dakota opposed to continuation of the war take
control of 269 American captives held near the Chippewa
September 26, “Friendlies” release American
captives. Col. Sibley enters Dakota camp and takes 1200
Dakota men, women, and children into custody. Over the next
weeks, and additional 800 Dakota will surrender to American
forces. In 37 days of fighting, the Dakota Conflict has
claimed the lives of over 500 Americans and about 60 Dakota.
September 28, Sibley appoints a five-member military commission
to “try summarily” Dakota for “murder
and other outrages” committed against Americans. Sixteen
trials take place the same day. Ten Dakota are convicted
and sentenced to be hanged, six are acquitted. Over the
next six weeks, 393 Dakota are tried.
October 14, At President Lincoln’s cabinet meeting,
the ongoing Dakota trials are discussed. Lincoln and several
cabinet members are disturbed by General Pope’s report
on the trials and planned executions, and move to prevent
October 17, General Pope tells Sibley that “the President
directs that no executions be made without his sanction.”
November 3, The last of 393 trials is conducted, with 42
trials taking place on the last day. In all, 323 Dakota
are convicted and 303 are sentenced to be hanged. All but
8 of those acquitted remained imprisoned at Camp Release.
November 9, the 303 condemned Dakota are moved from the
Lower Agency to Camp Lincoln, near Mankato. While passing
through New Ulm, the captives are attacked by an angry mob.
A few Dakota are killed and many injured. (Meanwhile, the
1700 uncondemned are moved to Fort Snelling, near St. Paul.)
November 10, Pope forwards to the President names of those
condemned. Lincoln asks for “a full and complete record
of their convictions” and “a careful statement”
indicating “the more guilty and influential of the
Nobember 14, Pope forwards records of the trials to President
Lincoln, together with a letter urging Lincoln to authorize
execution of all of the condemned and warning of mob violence
if the executions did not go forward.
Late Novmber, Rev. Riggs and Bishop Whipple urge clemency
for Dakota involved in battles and executions only for those
proven to have committed rape or killed women or children.
December 4, Several hundred civilians, armed with hatchets,
clubs, and knives, attack the camp where the condemned Dakota
are being held, but are surrounded and disarmed by soldiers.
December 6, President Lincoln issues an order allowing only
39 of the planned 300 executions to go forward. The execution
of one additional condemned man is suspended later after
new evidence casts doubt upon his guilt.
December 24, The 38 condemned Dakota are allowed to meet
with their families for the last time.
December 26, At 10 a.m., the condemned, singing and chanting
Dakota songs, are led to the scaffolds in Mankato. Three
drumbeats signal the moment of execution, the crowd cheers.
Bodies are buried in a single grave on the edge of town.
Homestead Act was passed opening the way for white settlement
in Indian territory.
Congress enacts a law providing for the removal of Dakota
and Winnebago bands from Minnesota.
The Crow Creek Reservation in South Dakota is established
to serve as the home of the Dakota and Winnebago who were
order to be removed form Minnesota.
The convicted prisoners who were not executed are moved
to Camp McClellan near Davenport, Iowa.
Battle of Big Mound – General Sibley attacked one
of the Ißanti camps that had left the Minnesota during
the conflict and had not returned. Both sides had losses,
of the Isañti who escaped some went north and the
remainder went west.
September 3, Sibley’s troops attacked Inkpaduta’s
Santee camp at Whitestone Hill near present day Ellendale,
North Dakota. More than 300 Dakota’s were killed and
nearly tht many were captured.
July 28, A camp of Santee, Titonwan, and Ihanktonwan was
attacked at Killdeer Mountian in North Dakota. The prisoners
taken and others from the various hostile bands were settled
on two reservations established for the Lower Yanktonia
at Crow Creek and the for the Snatee at Santee in northeastern
Nebraska. The Battle of Killdeer Mountain is viewed to be
the end of the Minnesota conflict that lasted roughly two
years. It is said that 700 white people killed in the Isañti
raid in the first few days of the conflict and 1500 or more
members of he O©eti ßaúowiñ lost
their lives in the aftermath.
November 29, Sand Creek Massacre Colonel Chivington, a sometimes
Methodist minister, leads a troop of volunteers and soldiers
to Black Kettle’s camp at Sand Creek for the sole
purpose of killing peaceful Indians. They kill 105 Indian
women and children and 28 men, many standing together under
a U.S. and a white flag. Afterward, they mutilated the bodies
horribly and wore the severed bodies parts on their saddles
and their hats. Unbelievable as it may seem, this event
is still classified as a major Civil War battle!
Indians regarded as competent witnesses under federal law
and allowed to testify in trials.
October, at Old Fort Sully, near Pierre a
general treaty of peace was made with the Santee, Yankton,
Yanktonia, and the one Band of Titonwañ, the Lower
Brule, who all agreed to go on reservations. The other Titonwan
bands refused to take part. However a series of treaties
were concluded with the other Titonwan Bands stating that
there would be peace among them and the US. None of the
main war chiefs participated in the Treaty making.
US Government gives a contract to Protestant Missionary
Societies to operate Indian schools.
April 9, Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox, the Civil
April 14,President Lincoln assassinated and Andrew Johnson
July, General Patrick Conner organizes 3 columns of soldiers
to begin an invasion of the Powder River Basin, from the
Black Hills, Paha Sapa, to the Big Horn Mountains. They
had one order: “Attack and kill every male Indian
over twelve years of age.” Conner builds a fort on
the Powder River. Wagon trains begin to cross the Powder
River Basin on their way to the Montana gold fields.
July 24 - 26, Battle of Platte Bridge - the Cheyennes and
Lakota besiege the most northerly outpost of the U.S. army
and succeed in killing all members of a platoon of cavalrymen
sent out to meet a wagon train as well as the wagon drivers
and their escorts.
August 1865 ,Battle of Tongue River - Connor’s column
destroys an Arapaho village, including all the winter’s
food supply, tents and clothes. They kill over 50 of the
Late September,Roman Nose’s Fight - The Cheyenne chief,
Roman Nose, in revenge for the Sand Creek massacre, led
several hundred Cheyenne warriors in a siege of the Cole
and Walker columns of exhausted and starving soldiers who
were attempting to return to Fort Laramie. Because they
were armed only with bows, lances and a few old trade guns,
they were unable to overrun the soldiers, but harassed them
for several days, until Connor’s returning column
October 14, The Southern Cheyenne chiefs sign a treaty agreeing
to cede all the land they formerly claimed as their own,
most of Colorado Territory, to the U.S. government. This
was the desired end of the Sand Creek massacre.
October, Connor returns to Fort Laramie leaving 2 companies
of soldiers at the fort they had constructed at the fork
of the Crazy Woman Creek and the Powder River. Red Cloud
and his warriors kept these men isolated and without supplies
all winter. Many died of scurvy, malnutrition and pneumonia
before winter’s end. They were not relieved until
June 28 by Col. Carrington’s company.
Late Fall, Nine treaties signed with the Sioux, including
the Brulés, Hunkpapas, Oglalas and Minneconjous.
These were widely advertised as signifying the end of the
Plains wars although none of the war chiefs had signed any
of these treaties.
President Andrew Jackson Orders the Release
of 177 Dakota Prisoners of War.
April 1, Congress overrides President Johnson’s veto
of the Civil Rights Bill, giving equal rights to all persons
born in the U.S. (except Indians). The President is empowered
to use the Army to enforce the law.
Late Spring, war chiefs Red Cloud, Spotted Tail, Standing
Elk, Dull Knife
and others come to Fort Laramie to negotiate a treaty concerning
access to the Powder River Basin. Shortly after the beginning
of the talks, on June 13, Col. Henry Carrington and several
hundred infantry men reached Fort Laramie to build forts
along the Bozeman trail. It was clear to the chiefs that
the treaty was a mere formality; the road would be opened
whether they agreed or not. This was the beginning Red Cloud’s
June 13, Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution,
giving negroes rights of citizenship, is forwarded to the
states for ratification.
July 13, Col. Carrington begins building Fort Phil Kearney.
He halts his column between the forks of the Little Piney
and the Big Piney Creeks, in the best hunting grounds of
the Plains Indians, and pitches camp. The Cheyenne visit
and decide that the camp is too strong for them to attack
directly and begin plans for harassing the soldiers who
leave the camp and for drawing out soldiers by using decoys.
All summer they harasses the soldiers and make alliances
with other Plains groups, forming a coalition of Lakota,
Cheyenne, Arapaho and Crow groups.
December 21, Fetterman Massacre early in December the young
Lakota warriors, including Crazy Horse, executed an elaborate
decoy manuever to draw soldiers out of the fort. They were
very successful and killed several officers and severely
wounded several other soldiers. In the next weeks an ambush
was carefully planned and a location for a trap was chosen.
Two thousand warriors moved south and set up camp two miles
north of the chosen trap location. Ten young warriors were
selected from the different tribal groups represented for
the most dangerous job of decoying the soldiers. These decoys
performed elaborate manuevers to lure the soldiers into
the trap. When they were all inside the trap, the decoys
signaled to the concealed warriors who rose up and killed
all 80 of the soldiers. Nonetheless, casualties among the
Indians were great because they were poorly armed to compete
with the new repeating rifles of the soldiers. The Indians
named this battle The Battle of the Hundred Slain. The whites
knew it as the Fetterman Massacre because the soldiers were
led by Captain Fetterman, who had boasted that he could
defeat the entire Sioux Nation with a single company of
cavalrymen. Col. Carrington was appalled by the mutilation
of the bodies they found. Had he seen the bodies of the
Indians slain at Sand Creek, the condition of these bodies
would have come as no surprise.
Abandonment of the Crow Creek Reservation and establishment
of the Santee Reservation near the mouth of the Niobrara
River in Nebraska. Pardoned prisoners from the military
prison in Davenport, Iowa join the Crow Creek survivors
in this new location.
Constitution Act (1871) [BNA Act] British North American
Act establishes the Confederation of Canada. The first Dominion
establishment of the Sisseton (or Lake Traverse) Reservation
in northeastern South Dakota and the Devil’s Lake
Reservation in central North Dakota for the Sissetonwan
and Wahpetonwan Dakota peoples.
Summer, Grand Council of tribes at Bear Butte, the sacred
mountain of the Cheyenne and Lakota, more than 6000 warriiors
in attnendance including Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, and Sitting
Bull, among other great leaders, all pledged to end further
encroachment by the whites.
The Army agrees to abandon the forts on the Bozeman Trail
The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 creates the Great Sioux
Reservation and agrees that the Sioux do not cede their
hunting grounds in Montana and Wyoming territories. The
Indians agree to become “civilized.”
George Armstrong Custer established himself as a great Indian
fighter by leading the Massacre on the Washita in Indian
Territory (Oklahoma) in which Black Kettle is killed.
Indian Act enacted by parliament shapes new administrative
machinerary for indian Affairs.
Hudson’s Bay Company sells its vast holdings of land
(Rupert’s Land) to the Dominion of Canada.
First Riel Rebellion in Canada of Red River Metis.
Transcontinental railroad completed. 1869 - The Transcontinental
Railroad cuts across Native American lands.
The Flandreau Colony. Tired of government interference,
25 Mdewakantonwan Dakota families leave the Santee reservation
to establish independent homesteads in and around Flandreau,
Smallpox epidemic among Canadian Plains Indian including
Blackfeet, Piegans, and Bloods.
There are an estimated 13 million buffalo on the Plains.
President Grant gives control of Indian agencies to 12 different
Christian denominations instead of army officers.
Grant’s Peace Policy continued to 1881
First sum earmarked for federal education of Indians.
First Ghost Dance Movement, Prayer to prevent immigration
Treaty-making period formally ends as Congress passes law
forbidding further negotiations of treaties with Indian
tribes. The Cherokee Tobacco Case of 1870, ruling that the
Cherokees are not exempt from taxes on produce (as established
in an earlier treaty), sets the stage for the new law. Indians
are now to be subject to acts of Congress and executive
General Sheridan issues orders forbidding western Indians
to leave reservations without permission of civilian agents.
White hunters begin wholesale killing of buffalo.
Indian burial grounds invaded by whites seeking bones for
manufacture of buttons.
Sissetonwan chief Tatanka Najin, or Standing Buffalo, is
killed in Montana. Some of his people travel north to the
Qu’Appelle Lakes in present-day Saskatchewan. Establishment
of Fort Peck Reservation, serving both Dakota and Assiniboine
peoples of northeastern Montana.
United States Government sends out a survey team to plot
a course for the Northern Pacific Railroad through the Sitting
Bull’s territory. Warned to stay away, the Government
In August, two U.S. railroad survey teams, each accompanied
by about 500 troops, head into eastern Montana and are attacked
by bands led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, with few casualties,
but severe consequences. General William Sherman testified
before Congress in March: “This railroad is a national
enterprise, and we are forced to protect the men during
its survey and construction, through, probably, the most
warlike nation of Indians on this continent, who will fight
for every foot of the line.”
In August, the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies move
to the White River in northwest Nebraska next to Fort Robinson,
living mostly on government rations. That same summer, an
Oglala hunting party encounters some white buffalo hunters,
who kill Whistler, a famous and friendly chief, and two
other Oglalas. The Lakota and Pawnee escalate their ongoing
war over the dwindling number of buffalo when Lakotas attack
a Pawnee camp, killing 50 men, women and children and stealing
their buffalo meat and skins. The Lakota also fight with
the Crow tribe over hunting grounds in Montana. In addition,
a skirmish erupts between Hunkpapa, Oglala, Miniconjous,
Sans Arcs, and Cheyennes, led overall by Sitting Bull, and
a railroad survey team led by General Custer, with a large
military escort. Miners looking for gold in the Black Hills
are frequently attacked by Indians.
The Lakota, with their Cheyenne and Arapaho allies, drive
the Crow out of eastern Montana because of intertribal competition
for the shrinking hunting grounds for buffalo.
Blackfeet men, women and children were slaughtered by U.S.
soldiers on the Marias River in Montana in response for
the killing of Malcolm Clarke and the wounding of his son
by a small party of young Blackfeet men.
Later that year, due to disagreements about the implementation
of the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty, Red Cloud and Spotted Tail
negotiate with President Ulysses S. Grant in Washington,
D.C. It is reaffirmed that the Sioux (and other tribes)
could live in the Powder River country, as well as hunt
Custer and the Seventh Cavalry come to the northern plains
to guard the surveyers for the Northern Pacific Railroad.
He has a chance encounter with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
The panic of 1873 is followed by the collapse of the economy
a depression that lasts until 1877 follows.
North West Mounted Police organized in Canada.
Custer leads a large expedition, including 1,000 troops,
into the Black Hills to explore and set up military posts.
The expedition, which also includes geologists, finds gold
and publicizes their discovery, leading to a massive influx
of prospectors to the area. In September, the U.S. military
are ordered to stop miners from trespassing on the Sioux
Grey Nuns from Canada arrive in Fort Totten, Dakota Territory;
employed by U.S. Government
Treaty Four is signed by Pheasant Rump, Ocean Man, and Carry
The Kettle Nakota Bands are party to this treaty. Wood Mountain
Lakota Band and Standing Buffalo Dakota Band are seeking
adhesion o this treaty.
There are 15,000 miners in the Black Hills at the beginning
of the year. In spring, Red Cloud, Spotted Tail and other
chiefs are summoned to Washington to meet with President
Grant and discuss the Black Hills. The Indians argue among
themselves about how to deal with the situation and nothing
is resolved. The U.S. Senate Commission visits the Nebraska
Agencies to offer $6 million for purchase of the Black Hills,
but the Indians refuse. By November, President Grant abandons
any attempts to keep the miners out of the Black Hills,
ultimately reversing the U.S. position by protecting the
miners and settlers. On December, 6, 1875, the U.S. Commissioner
on Indian Affairs orders the Lakota onto the reservation
by a Jan. 31, 1876, deadline, threatening to treat them
as “hostiles” and have them arrested. Some Sioux,
scattered during the harsh winter, don’t receive the
Establishment of the Sioux Valley or Oak River Reserve in
west central Manitoba, Canada by Minister of the Interior
and endorsed by Dakota leaders. This is one of the many
small Dakota reserves scattered across Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
February 1, the Secretary of the Interior relinquishes jurisdiction
over all so-called “hostile” Sioux - meaning
those off the reservation lands - to the War Department.
The Army is ordered in for the 1876 War that ensues, which
includes the famous Battle of the Little Big Horn. In October,
the Treaty of 1876 between the U.S. and the Sioux Nation
of Indians, the Northern Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians is
signed, despite protests of the majority of the tribes,
and enacted into law by Congress in February the following
Custer is defeated at the Battle of Little Big Horn. Dakota
warriors are reported to be represented among the assembled
The U.S. government issues an ultimatum that all Sioux who
are not on the Great Sioux Reservation by January 31 will
be considered hostile. The winter is bitter and most Sioux
do not even hear of the ultimatum until after the deadline.
March 17, 1876 - General George Crook’s advance column
attacks a Sioux/Cheyenne camp on the Powder River. The people
were driven from their lodges and many were killed. The
lodges and all the winter supplies were burned and the horse
herd captured. That night, the warriors recaptured the horse
herd. The people then sought refuge in Crazy Horse’s
camp an few miles away.
Spring, Sitting Bull organizes the greatest gathering of
Indians on the northern plains.
June 17, in the Battle of the Rosebud, General Crook is
to retire from the “pincers” campaign.
June 25, The Battle of the Little Bighorn, where General
George Armstrong Custer and 210 men under his command are
killed. The news reaches the east for the Independence Day
October, Colonel Nelson “Bear Coat” Miles arrived
on the Yellowstone River to take command of the campaign
against the northern plains indians.
The Manypenny Commission demands that the Sioux give up
Paha Sapa or starve. Having no choice, Red Cloud, Spotted
Tail and the other reservation chiefs signed over Paha Sapa.
Canada enacts Canadian Indian Act which defines Indian policy
and gives individual Indians the right to seek enfranchisement
as Canadian citizens by renouncing their rights and privileges
1876 Treaty Number Six and 1878 Treaty Six Adhesion By Stony
Indians, the Mosquito Nakota Band and Alexis and Pauls Stoney
Bands are party o this treaty. The surrendered Bands of
Grissly Bears Head and Lean Man were also signatories to
this treaty. White Cap and Whapeton Dakota Bands are seeking
adhesion to this treaty.
Incorporation of the Homestake Mining Company. Its operations
centered at the town of Lead in the Black Hills eventually
expanded to produce more gold than any other mining operation
in the Western Hemisphere in the next century.
The Wolf Mountain Battle occurs in January. Crazy Horse
is killed at Fort Robinson in September, after volunteering
to come to the fort to discuss ongoing conflicts. That same
month, Red Cloud and Spotted Tail travel to Washington to
meet with President Rutherford B. Hayes, receiving his promise
that they could choose their own permanent settlement site
within the reservation, which now excluded the Black Hills.
Early May, Sitting Bull escapes to Canada. He has about
300 followers with him.
May 6, Crazy Horse surrenders at Fort Robinson.
May 7, a small band of Minneconjou Sioux is defeated by
General Miles, thus ending the Great Sioux Wars.
September 6, Crazy Horse is killed at the hands of soldiers
and some of his own people.
The Manypenny Agreement is ratified by Congress, taking
Paha Sapa and confining the Indians to reservations.
1877 Treaty Seven, the Wesley, Chinki, and Bears Paw Stoney
Bands are signaories to this treaty.
Congress makes appropriation to provide for Indian Police,
a policy which in 1883 brings about the Court of Indian
Offenses with authorization for tribal units to administer
justice in all but major crimes. In the Major Crimes Act
of 1885, federal courts are formally given jurisdiction
over Indian cases involving major crimes.
January, 1A Commission finds the Indian Bureau permeated
with “cupidity, inefficiency, and the most barefaced
dishonesty.” The department’s affairs were “a
reproach to the whole nation.” Carl Schurz had already
dismissed the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, John Q. Smith
on September 27, 1877. He now discharged many more Bureau
employees and began a reorganization of the Indian agents.
The Pine Ridge and Rosebud agencies (later made into reservations)
are created in June.
Further reduction in Indian lands takes place after further
action and Agreement initiated by the Government in 1879.
Red Cloud, without approval of his people, signs over the
Black Hills, site of Bear Butte, to the United States Government.
Bureau of American Ethnology, a branch of the Smithsonian,
is founded for anthropological studies.
Federal Court at Omaha, Nebraska, responding to a habeas
corpus trial brought by Standing Bear, a Ponca, gives Indians
the right to sue.
The Carlisle Indian School is founded in Pennsylvania, in
an aggressive U.S. government campaign to “civilize”
Indian children. Children from reservations across the West
are sent to the school in order to assimilate into white
culture. This assimilation includes cutting their hair,
burning their clothing and forcing them to wear European
American dress. They are forbidden to speak their Native
language, and punishment for infractions is severe. The
school is a breeding ground for disease, and many children
Many “Friends of the Indian” organizations are
founded, including Indian Protection Committee, Indian Rights
Association, Women’s National Indian Association,
and National Indian Defense Association.
Marty made Bishop and Vicar Apostolic of Dakota Territory
July 19, Sitting Bull and 186 of his remaining followers
surrender at Fort Buford. He is sent to Fort Randall for
2 years as a prisoner of war instead of being pardoned,
Late summer, Spotted Tail is assassinated by Crow Dog. White
officials dismiss the killing as a simple quarrel, but the
Sioux feel that it was the result of a plot to wrest control
from a strong Indian leader.
White Cap Reserve established south of Saskatoon. George
Weldon hired to be the Farm Inspector.
U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs issued
a ban on traditional ceremonies and dances ... what he termed
“the barbarous customs of the Sioux.”
Sitting Bull is allowed to go to the Standing Rock Reservation
where he lived the rest of his life across the Grand River
from his birthplace.
Canadian Parliament passes the Indian Advancement Act, encouraging
“Democratic” election of chiefs by Indian bands.
The Mohawks at St. Regis, Ontario, resist the provision,
wanting to keep their traditional method of choosing leaders.
Last great herd of buffalo exterminated.
Second Riel Rebellion of Metis living along the Saskatchewan
River in Canada. Cree Indians surrender to Dominion troops.
Canadian Pacific transcontinental railroad is completed.
Sitting Bull tours with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show.
Major Crimes Act, was passed by Congress to limit the power
of Indian nations to punish Indians who violated tribal
law. Previously, the Supreme Court had recognized this power
of Indian governments. See; Exparte Crow Dog, 109 U.S. 556
(1886). The effect of the Act has been to punish crimes
committed by Indians in accordance with American ideas of
law and justice rather than Indian law and custom.
White Cap’s and twenty of his men were coerced by
the Crees to join Big Bear’s Band at the Fish Creek
skirmish. After the skirmish some of his followers snuck
away. White Cap was taken to Riel at Batouche and was made
part of Riel’s council. . White Cap could not talk
Cree or French so he did not understand what was discussed
but grasped enough to know that they were planning to rebel.
White Cap escaped and went into to Saskatoon to see Dr.
Gerald Willoughby. He told Dr. Willoughby of being held
asgain his will and asked for assistance in getting his
propoerty back from the Metis.
The Dawes Severalty Act, otherwise known as the General
Allotment Act, gives the President power to reduce the landholdings
of the Indian nations across the country by allotting 160
acres to the heads of Indian families and 80 acres to individuals.
The “surplus lands” on the reservations were
opened up to settlement.
Red Cloud invites the Jesuits to the reservation to establish
a school for Lakota children in order to avoid sending children
off the reservation. Holy Rosary Mission was established
west of Pine Ridge.
South Dakota and North Dakota enter the federal Union as
states created out of the Dakota Territory.
The Sioux sign an agreement with the U.S. government breaking
up the great Sioux Reservation. The Sioux will get six separate
small reservations. The major part of their land was thrown
open to settlers.
Minnesota reservations for returning Mdewakantonwan Dakota
people and those who stayed are established by acts of Congress
at Prairie Island, Shakopee and Lower Sioux near Redwood
Mid-1890, A prophet from the Paiutes in Nevada, Wovoka,
introduces a new religion, based on the Ghost Dance, to
all Indian people.
The Ghost Dance religion sweeps across the Sioux reservation.
Sitting Bull is killed on December 15 by Indian policemen,
acting on behalf of the U.S. government.
On December 29, Big Foot’s band of Minneconjous, trying
to reach Pine Ridge and the protection of Red Cloud after
hearing of Sitting Bull’s death, are massacred at
Wounded Knee Creek on December 29 by Custer’s old
outfit, the Seventh Cavalry.
December 7, Wahpeton Reserve established by Order in Council.
The Curtis Act re-affirms allotment of tribal lands on Indian
reservations and ends tribal sovereignty in the territories.
The Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities makes
excavation, theft or destruction of historic or prehistoric
ruins or objects of antiquity on federal lands a criminal
offense. Dead Indians and Indian artifacts are defined as
“archeological resources,” thus considered federal
Wood Mountain Reserve established for the Lakota , each
family was to be granted 160 acres.
The Lakota’s request the government to given them
all Township 4 for the Wood Mountain Reserve, farm implements
and to set up a day school. The Government refused to establish
a school on the grounds that there were not enough children
on the reserve to warrant a school.
Father Sylvester Eisenman, OSB came to Yankton Sioux Reservation
and estalbished Marty Mission.
An additional quarter section was added to the Whapeton
Reserve by Order in Council.
The Citizenship Act of 1924 naturalizes Indians born within
the territorial limits of the United States.
The Indian Reorganization Act recognizes tribal governments
as sovereign nations.
The Indian Arts and Crafts Board is funded under the U.S.
Department of Indian Affairs to encourage Native arts and
crafts and to certify the authenticity of Indian products.
The U.S. government adopts the Federal Relocation Policy
of “terminating” tribes: that is, settling all
obligations, withdrawing federal support and closing reservations.
Congress eventually terminates
Johnson Omalley Act P.L. 81-874 was amended to include assistance
for educating Indian children, the JOM program became a
supplemental aid program in lieu of tax dollars.
Over 500 Native Americans gather for the American Indian
Chicago Conference to support tribal sovereignty and survival.
That same year, the National Indian Youth Council forms,
considered by some to be a militant organization. Many other
organizations supporting Native Americans are founded throughout
The State of South Dakota acquires Bear Butte
for development as a State Park
Older Americans Act provides grants to American Indians,
Alaskan Natives, and Native Hawaiians to establish programs
for older Native Americans under title VI of the act (45
Indian Civil Rights Act gives full civil rights to individuals
living under tribal law. It effectively reversed the 1896
Supreme Court decision, which declared that individuals
living under tribal governments were not protected by the
Bill of Rights.1968 The American Indian Movement (AIM) is
founded in Minneapolis to address the needs of Native peoples,
renew tribal spirituality, and reverse destructive governmental
Beginning in November, a small group of Native Americans
called the Indians of All Tribes occupy Alcatraz Island
for two years to create a greater awareness of the deplorable
circumstances of Indians in the U.S. The island of Alcatraz
was the site of a military prison from 1863 to 1933, and
a federal prison from 1934 to 1963.
Louis R. Bruce – Oglala Sioux/Mohawk served as the
Commissioenr of Indian Affairs
President Richard Nixon formally ends the
termination policies established in the 1950s. Dee Brown
publishes Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Since its initial
publication, over five million copies of the controversial
book have been sold around the world.
In the fall, AIM supporters organize “The Trail of
Broken Treaties,” for which thousands of Indians drive
to Washington, D.C., and occupy the Bureau of Indian Affairs
(BIA) headquarters, demanding that the U.S. recognize tribal
sovereignty and self-determination.
Seven National Indian organizations march on Washington,
D.C. and occupy the Bureau of Indian Affairs Headquarters
in an effort to publicize grievances with the government.
Members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) occupy the
historic Wounded Knee village for 72 days in a tense and
often violent confrontation with federal officials. The
occupation draws national attention to the grievances of
In the three years following the Second Siege of Wounded
Knee, 61 AIM supporters are killed on or near the Pine Ridge
Reservation, despite ongoing FBI investigations. In a controversial
ruling, Leonard Peltier is convicted and imprisoned for
the 1975 killing of two FBI agents.
The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
gives Native Americans more control in administering federal
programs and services to their people.
Ben Reifel, Rosebud Sioux – served as the Commissioenr
of Indian Affiars
U.S. Congress passes a series of approximately 50 laws that
help redefine tribal issues regarding water rights, fishing
rights and land acquisition. Some land is returned to the
tribes, and issues of self-governance are further clarified.
The Indian Child Welfare Act ends the discrimination that
prevented Native Americans from acting as foster parents
or qualifying for adoption. It also provides Indian communities
with child welfare and family services. The American Indian
Religious Freedom Act finally reverses U.S. policies outlawing
certain tribal rituals and shamanic practices.
Congress passes the American Indian Religious Freedom Act
affirming religious freedom for Indian people.
The Supreme Court rules that the U.S. owes the Lakota Sioux
interest from a 1877 payment as compensation for taking
the Black Hills, originally part of Indian lands. The Lakota
reject the payment, hoping to reclaim the Black Hills from
Canada Act/Constitution Act was the last constitutional
enactment for Canada to be made by the Parliament of the
United Kingdom. It thus has the political importance of
patriating the Canadian constitution; all future amendments
must be done within Canada and according to amending formulas
set out in Part V of the 1982 Constitution Act, which the
Canada brought into force. Further Canada is hereinafter
exempt of laws enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The 1982 Constitution Act brought into effect the Charter
of Rights And Freedoms and includes a number of clauses
that are key to protecting Aboriginal right sin Canada.
United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit holds
against Native American claims for protection of Bear Butte
as a sacred site in Fools Crow v. Gullet, 706 F.2d 856 (8th
Indian Land Consolidation Act, .under this act when there
are multiple heirs and the division of heirship lands equates
to parcels of less than 2% the total and/or a lease payment
of less than $100 the ownership of the heirship land will
revert tot he tribe. This Act has caused many to loose their
rights to heirship lands. At the time this Act was passed
the United States Government stipulated that it had to responsibilities
for Canadian Nationals (ie: Dakota/Nakota/Lakota who are
members of Canadian Bands or residing in Canada ) and will
no longer act as trustee for Canadian Nationals who own
lands on US reservations or become heirs to properties on
US reservations. As a result of this Act and the US Government’s
position, many Canadian Dakota/Nakota/Lakota have lost their
lands on US reservations.
Tribally Controlled Schools Act provides grants
for operation and management of tribally controlled schools
The National Museum of the American Indian Act orders the
Smithsonian Institute to return Native American remains
to American Indian tribes.
August, Dakota Nations of Canada hosts first Dakota/Nakota/Lakota
Summit meeting at the Standing Buffalo Reserve. Canadian
and American Bands/Tribes of the O©eti §ßaúowiñ
commit to re-unite the O©eti ßakowiñ and
work collectively on issues pertaining to the nation. It
was determined that annual summit meetings or meetings of
the Ik©e Wi©aßa Ta Omni©iye.
The Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act
protects Indian gravesites on federal public lands against
The Indian Arts and Crafts Act, which goes into effect in
1996, finally protects the work of Indian artists, an effort
that began in 1935.
South Dakota Governor George S. Mickelson and representatives
of the state’s nine tribal governments proclaim 1990
a Year of Reconciliation. A Century of Reconciliation is
declared in 1991.
Native American Languages Act, this federal policy statement
recognizing the language rights of American Indians, Alaska
Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe.
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Yankton Sioux Tribe.
The celebration of the 500th anniversary of the arrival
of Christopher Columbus to the Americas prompts protests
from many Native American tribes and supporters.
Native American Language Act provides grant program to ensure
survival and continuing vitality of Native American languages
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Oglagla Sioux Tribe
United States Supreme Court - South Dakota versus Borland
– Upheld that Congress, in the Flood Control and Cheyenne
River Acts, abrogated the Tribe's rights under the Fort
Laramie Treaty to regulate non Indian hunting and fishing
on lands taken by the United States for construction of
the Oahe Dam and Reservoir. Pp. 7-18.
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe.
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Wesley, Chinki, and Bearspaw Nakoda Bands in Morley,
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Oglala Sioux Tribe at Fort Laramie.
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Sioux Valley Dakota Nation
United States Supreme Court - Babbit versus Youpee states
that the 1983 Indian Lands Consolidation Act abrogates rights
of decent and devise and further does not provide compensation
for lands escheated to the tribe and therefore violates
the 5th Amendment Rights.
Corporation for Public Broadcasting establishes Native American
Public Telecommunications, Inc., (NAPT) to promote, produce
and distribute Native American television and radio programming.
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Wahpeton Dakota Nation
United States Supreme Court in South Dakota versus Yankton
Sioux Tribe held that the 1894 Act’s operative language
and the circumstances surrounding its passage demonstrate
that Congress intended to diminish the Yankton Reservation.
Aboriginal Languages Initiative is passed by Parliament,
the first funding program specific for Aboriginal Languages
– a $20 million dollar four year initiative.
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Upper Sioux Community in Granite Falls, Minnesota
On March 22, Sioux people establish the Oceti Sakowin spiritual
camp on La Framboise Island in the Missouri River near Pierre,
South Dakota, in protest of the treaty-breaking Danklow
Acts (Terrestrial Wildlife Habitat Restoration Act and Water
Resources Development Authorization), which give 200,000
acres of tribal lands to the state of South Dakota.
July 7, President William Clinton visits the Pine Ridge
Reservation in South Dakota for a “nation to nation”
business meeting and tours the reservation’s housing
facilities. The president signs a pact with Oglala leaders
establishing an empowerment zone and participates in a conference
on home ownership and economic development for Native Americans.
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Standing Buffalo Dakota Nation.
January 16, the activist group Grass Roots Oyate begins
its occupation of the Red Cloud Building at the Oglala Sioux
Tribal Headquarters, Pine Ridge Reservation, in protest
of what they deem the corrupt, oppressive and ineffective
politics of tribal leadership. Federal officials remove
financial records the following day, and the elected tribal
president was eventually suspended. The activists vow to
continue the occupation until their demands are met.
September, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) determine
that bones of the 9,000 year-old human remains known as
Kennewick Man, found in the Columbia River in Washington,
be returned to the five Indian tribes that have claimed
him as their ancient ancestor, as determined by the Native
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990.
Tribal Self-Governance Demonstration Project Act Amendments,
permanently establish Tribal Self-Governance for Indian
Health Service programs in a new Title V; repeals Title
III of ISEAA; establishes a Title VI in ISDEAA mandating
a self-governance demonstration feasibility study.
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was not held
Native American Language Act – pending –to provide
for the support of Native American Language Survival Schools,
and for other programs.
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by
the Oglala Sioux Tribe at Red Shirt Table .
The O©eti §aúowiñ become aware that
the city of Sturgis and a group of private investors plan
to build a sports complex/shooting range just 4 miles north
of Bear Butte. Federal Government funding is being used
to support the project. No Native American Spiritual leaders,
or Tribal Leaders were ever contacted about the plans to
build the shooting range that will affect so many people
who pray at Bear Butte. Bear Butte is one of the most important
sacred places on the North American continent, in order
to provide some protection to this site, the people are
urged to unite together to stop any more destruction at
Bear Butte and other sacred places in the Black Hills