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Article: Timeline of Events Relevant to the O©eþi §aúowiñ

1611
First Jesuits sent to New France.

1640
First recorded references to the O©eti §aúowiñ is made in the Jesuit Relations by Jean Nicolette who had visited the in their territory in 1634-35.

1655-56
The O©eti §aúowiñ took in a band of Hurons who had fled from the Iroqoiuse.

1660
French explorers Pierre Espirit Radisson and Medard Chouart and Sieur de Groseillliers and others, who had spent a miserable winter of near starvation on Chequamegon Bay on Lake Superior, in the spring were invited, by eight Dakota emissaries, to attend a Feast of the Dead. The invitation was accepted and their report was first included in Jesuit Relations for 1659-60.

1682
Father Hennepen reached the source of the Mississippi River in 1682 and at that time claimed all of the Mississippi Valley in the name of France.

1665
The O©eti §aúowiñ were visited by Father Claude Allouez

Father Marquettee negotiated a peace between the O©eti §aúowiñ and their neighbors the Ojibwe, Ssax, Fox, Illinois and others. That peace lasted until 1671.

1671
After being provoked by their neighbours the O©eti §aúowin returned Marquette’s presents and went to war with their neighbours.

1673
Marquette and Joliet “discover” the Upper Mississippi River and describe its vast reach. Their ‘discovery” dashes hope for a water road to the Pacific Ocean.

1674
O©eti §aúowiñ sent a delegation to Sault Saint Marie to participate in peace negations at the Jesuit Mission. While there the Ojibwe attacked them and burned the church.

1680
A Band of Isañti captured Father Hennepin who they met on the Mississippi that spring, they kept him until fall when they released him to Pierre Deluth.

1682
LaSalle claims the Mississippi River Valley for France by declaring the claim at the mouth of the river near what is now New Orleans. What becomes known as “The Louisiana Territory” is ostensibly under French rule.

1695
Le Sueur built a fort on “Isle Pele” near Treasure Island and the mouth of the St. Croix River near Red Wing and Nicholas Perot built one on the south end of the lake. The most confusing accounts of a French fort location is that of Fort Beauharnias (pronounced “born - wah”), which was also known as “The Sioux Post,” and was built in 1727 by Rene Boucher on a site along the banks of the lake. It was abandoned after a year, but was rebuilt and occupied in 1730 to 1737 and again in 1750 to 1759.

LeSueur took Chippewa Chief Chingouabe and Dakota Chief Tiyoßkaþe to Montreal to meet with Govenor de Frontenac. While there Chief Tiyoßkaþe died and is buried in downtown old Montreal.


1698
The French assisted the O©eti §aúowiñ in a war against the Fox and got themselves in a conflict hated 40 years. Before the end the O©eti §aúowiñ and the French turned on each other. The O©eti §aúowiñ then gave refuge to the defeated Fox who by that time were very few in number.

1736
Members of the O©eti §aúowiñ murdered killed Verendrye the younger and all of his party of 20 at Lake of the Woods.

1745-46
The Fox made peace with the O©eti §aúowiñ and between the O©eti §aúowiñ and the Ojibwe.

1756-1763
French and Indian War. English defeated the French and took possession of entire Northeast by 1763.


1763
After the fall of Canada, the English and the O©eti §aúowiñ enter make a treaty for friendship and trade.

The British took control of the land around Lake Pepin.

Royal Proclamation, with the end of the Seven Years War between Britain and France, the conditions of peace were spelled out in the Treaty of Paris. The terms of peace gave Britain title to various new territories in America. In order to manage these territorial acquisitions a Royal Proclamation was decreed. In Canada, the Proclamation is the basis of our understanding of the legal nature of Indian title and an historical root of the treaty process. Its provisions underlie the surrenders and designations of reserve land, which still take place pursuant to the Indian Act.

1766-67
Jonathan Carver , the first English explorer came into Isañti territory. The first English explorer in this area was Jonathan Carver, who arrived in the winter of 1766 and stay into the summer of 1767. He was the first white to canoe down the Chippewa River and later published notes and maps about this area in England. He produced a document stating that a large tract of land was given to him by the Sioux. It included all of the land East of the Mississippi River for 200 miles below St. Anthony Falls, then 120 miles East to the source of the Pine River, and then 150 miles North and then a straight line back to the falls. The document is still available for research, but his claim was never honoured

1768
British give back control of Indian Affairs to the colonies.

Ojibwe ambushed a Isañti canoe fleet with a crew of 500 warriors near the confluence of the Mississippi and Crow Wing Rivers with a smaller number of men. The Ojibwe killed many Isañti.

1774
The Quebec Act, Under the terms of peace agreed to in the Treaty of Paris, Britain gained full control over New France, which became known as Quebec. With rebellions in the colonies to the South, which would later form the beginnings of the United States, the British worried that the French might not be in favour of supporting them.

1775
The Continental Congress establishes a Committee on Indian Affairs, appointing commissioners to create peace treaties with the Indians.

Aware that the American were going to revolted, the British struggled hard but were successful in getting the Ojibwe and the O©eti §aowiñ to make a peace treaty and stay at peace until after the American Revolution. Both tribe fought in support of the British.

1776
Declaration of Independence. Allegation made that King George III has not helped the colonists deal with difficulties with the “savages of the interior” referring to conflict with Native Americans.

1778
Continental Congress made first treaty with Indians (Delawares).

Dakota Chief Wabasha was commissioned as a general in the British Army.

1779
Northwest Company was organized, the Company changed the fur trade.

1785
Machinac Company or General Company of Lake Superior. This company competed for Dakota trade.Too many traders, declinging European prices and too little organization hindered the companies efforts, the company eventually broke up in 1788

1787
Northwest Ordinance, the final of four Ordinances was adopted by the Confederation Congress sitting in its last session, in 1787. In sum, the Northwest Ordinance dealt with the territory aquired from Great Britain in the aftermath of the war---land north of the Ohio River and east of Mississippi. It made four crucial promises to prospective states in this region. First, that each would enter the union "on an equal footing with the original states." Second, that revenue generated from the sale of a portion of each township in the state would go to fund public education---the first instance of federal aid for education in American history. Third, "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude" were to be allowed. And four, that a good faith effort would be made to respect the Indians in the territory.

United States Constitution is adopted by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Ratification by the states occurs in 1789 when New Hampshire becomes the ninth state of the original thirteen to ratify the Constitution. Article I grants power to Congress to “regulate commerce among the states . . . and with the Indian tribes.”

1789
United States Constitution ratified by the states; Indian rights reaffirmed.

1790
Congress enacted first law regulating trade and land sales with Indians.

1790 –1834
Indian Trade and Intercourse Act, the stated purpose of this act was to protect against unscrupulous white traders, control liquor traffic in Indian country and provide a way to remove renegade white desperados from Indian country. The Trade and Intercourse Acts (the last being passed in 1834) operated to restrict the exercise of Indian sovereign powers through the influence of the US government in Indian country. What occurred was an extension of federal criminal jurisdiction to offenses involving non-Indians in Indian territory. (The act also regulated land transactions in Indian country. Act of June 30, 1834, 4 Stat. 738, 25 U.S.C. ¤ 9) These first steps set the pattern and established a foundation for later broader intrusions upon Indian self-government, even though Congress apparently realized it had no right to do so. For an explanation of congressional intent in passing the Trade and Intercourse Act of 1834, see H.R. Rep. No. 474, 23rd Cong., 1st Sess., 5(1834):"It is rather of courtesy than of right that we undertake to punish crimes committed in that Indian territory by and against our own citizens. And this provision is retained principally on the ground that it may be unsafe to trust Indian law in the early stages of their government. . . ." (Emphasis added). The admission by Congress that the US had no right to punish crimes in Indian country acknowledges that the United States had no jurisdictional authority there.

1791
Bill of Rights (First Ten Amendments) to the United States Constitution is adopted by Congress. Ratified by the states in 1793. First Amendment protects religious liberty by prohibit legislation to “establish” religion or prohibit “free exercise” of religion. This limitation on Congress is not extended to the states until judicial decision in the early 20th Century though an interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment (1868).

Constitutional Act (1791) an act of the British Parliament that repealed certain parts of the Quebec Act of 1774 and effectively divided the colony into two provinces. What had previously been known, as the colony of "The Province of Quebec" was transformed.

1795
Jay Treaty Treaty between the English and the Americans after the Revolutionary War, contains clause at end: Indians can cross Canada-U.S. border freely without interference by customs, duties, etc on either side. No other mention of responsibilities to Indian allies, their lands either side. Canada refuses to recognise this Treaty.

1796
French traders and trappers from St. Louis began to come into Ihañktoñwañ and Titoñwañ territory.

1800-02
There are an estimated 60 million buffalo on the Plains.

Federal Law prohibits the sale of liquor to Indians.

Congress appropriates funds to “educate” and “civilize” the Indians.

1803
April 30th, Louisiana Purchase. President Thomas Jefferson concludes a treaty with the French in which the United States purchases the “Louisiana Territory” from France. Jefferson regarded this as his greatest achievement. It doubles the land mass of the United States overnight, fuels the controversy over slavery in the states and ignites interest in westward expansion.

To take advantage of established trade networks. trading posts were established throughout the West after the Louisiana Purchase Fur trading becomes an important part of Lakota life. The Lakota tribes asserted their territorial rights and control to cover most of the current regions known as North and South Dakota, westward to the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming and south to the Platte River in Nebraska.

1803-06
The numerous bands of O©eti §aúowiñ met the Lewis and Clark expedition at various points during their travels through O©eti §aúowiñ territory.

1805
Lieutenant Zebulon Pike visited the Isañti and other tribes along the upper Mississippi. He negotated the first US Treaty with the O©eti §aúowiñ in the vacintiy of present day St. Paul. On September 23, the Isanti Chiefs signed the treaty giving the US land to build a military fort (Fort Snelling). At the time the Isanti gave up their British flags and medals in exchange for American ones.

1806
Office of Superintendent of Indian Trade is established to oversee Indian trading posts.

1807
Manuel Lisa, a Creole-Spaniard from St. Louis founded the American Fur Company and estalbished his first headquarters at Cedar island in the Missouri River below present day Pierre. Latter he moved it farther down river near present day Chamberlain. In time he operated several trading in Ó©ceti §aúowiñ territory and established a good relationship with the people. He was appointed the first US Government Agent for the upper Missouri Tribes.


1812-15
War of 1812
The British recruit various Bands of the O©eti §aúowiñ to fight on their behalf in the War of 1812. Robert Dickson, a Britsh trader married to a an Isañti woman is successful in securing the support of the Isañti bands and a number of others.

Maneul Lisa was able to keep a number of Yankton, Yanktonia, and Titonwan bands from joining n the War of 1812.

1814
December 24, 1814 Treaty of Ghent

1815
The US negotiates a series of treaties with the O©eti §aúowiñ member bands to re-establish peace and friendship between the United States and them and in every respect to be on the same footing upon which they stood before the late war between the United States and Great Britain,

1817
American traders began to compete with Native American tribes for the buffalo fur business.

1819
First appropriation ($10,000) to civilize Indians.

1820
Manuel Lisa died at Fort Manual Lisa near present day Kenel on the Standing Reservation.

Fort Snelling was built in Minneappolis.

1822
Indian Trading Posts were abolished in the United States by Congress.

1823
Indian Agent Teliaferro took a delegation of Sioux, Chippewa, and Minominee Indians on the first of a series of visits to Washington D.C. No treaty was signed but it gave them a chance to see the numbers and strength of the Whitman. Also it set the stage for peace negotiations at Prairrie du Chien..

1824
The U.S. Secretary of War establishes the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), which does not receive congressional authorisation until 1934.

1825
In Territory in the United is defined as being all territory west of the Mississippi.

A treaty is established between the U.S. and the Oglala branch of the Teton Sioux (Lakota) regarding fur trade, signed for the Oglala by Standing Buffalo (aka Standing Bull). The 1825 treaty states that the Sioux and Oglala “...reside within the territorial limits of the United States, acknowledge their supremacy, and claim their protection. The said bands also admit the right of the United States to regulate all trade...”

1830
Influenza epidemic among tribes of British Columbia. In 1830-33, there are outbreaks of European diseases in California and Oregon.

Indian Removal Act is passed, relocating eastern Indians to the west of the Mississippi

Treaty With The Yankton, Santee Bands, Omahaws,, Etc- This treaty was for land cession, in addition the treaty established a buffer between the Sioux and the Sauk and Foxes and a reserve for Dakota half breeds.

1830-36
Geroge Catlin travels with the Sioux and other tirbes of the plains. During his stay he made many paintings that documented the O©eti §aúowiñ lifestyle. In addition he kept a journal.

1831
Sitting Bull was born in the Grand River territory

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 30 U.S. (5 Pet.) 1 Chief Justice John Marshall, writing for the United States Supreme Court, holds that the Cherokee people are a “domestic dependent nation” and not a foreign nation under United States law. This effectively places the Indian people in the status of a subject ward in relation to the federal government. This status is reflected in the actions by the federal government over the years to come in which Indian lands are sharply reduced through a variety of means by the action of the federal government.

1832
Worcester v. Georgia, 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 515. United States Supreme Court holds that state law does not apply on Indian land. This leads to invalidation of anti-Cherokee laws passed by the State of Georgia. It does not, however, provide any protection for Indian people from United States federal governmental power

1833-34
Missouri River Expedition of two Europeans, Prince Maximilian and the painter Karl Bodmer.

1834
Congress reorganizes the Indian offices, creating the U.S. Department of Indian Affairs (still within the War Department). The Trade and Intercourse Act redefines the Indian Territory and Permanent Indian Frontier, and gives the army the right to quarantine Indians.

U.S. Department of Indian Affairs Act redefines Indian Territory.

U.S. army is given right to quarantine Indians.

Four thousand Oglala people relocate to Fort Laramie to boost their fur trade with white people

The Oglala become more centrally organized with most bands following Bull Bear with many of the rest following Smoke. This was a change from their previous more loosely governed bands with many leaders of comparable influence. The Bear Butte area in western South Dakota, extending west to Devil’s Tower was the geographic and spiritual center of their world.The Oglala needed a base which provided access to the southern buffalo herds upon which their lifestyle depended. The area at the joining of the Laramie and North Platte Rivers was optimum for their needs. Simultaneously the fur trading companies were pushing westward along the Indian trading routes. William Sublette also realized that the region near the joining of the Laramie and North Platte Rivers was an ideal site for a trading post. He realized that the beaver were almost gone and that buffalo hides would become a major trade item. He established a post he called Fort William (later to be Fort Laramie) as a trade center. Hoping to compete with the American Fur Company (owned by John Jacob Astor), he sent messengers to the Oglala encouraging them to trade at Fort Laramie. Bull Bear moved 4,000 Oglala to Fort Laramie and made this area the center of Oglala activity for the next 40 years. Bull Bear brought his band the next year. Subsequently Sublette sold the Fort to the American Fur Company. While the Oglala drove other tribes from the Fort Laramie area, other Sioux bands would spend time in the area. By the 1860’s many Brulé bands moved to the area.

Regular missions were established among the Isañti by the Congressgational Church, one at Lake Calhoune in Minneappolis, one at Lake Harriet, and one at Lac qui Parle.

1837-70
At least four samll pox epidemics ravaged the O©eti §aúowiñ. In the winter 1837-38 epidemic allegely to have been caused by a steamer on the Missouri River. The epidemic spread among all tirbes of the upper Missouri, it is estimated that 230,000 Indians died, many of them members of the O©eti §aúowiñ.

1836
Four land session treaties are negotiated with Ißañti Bands.

1837
Lutherans established a mission for he Isanti at Red Wing.

The Catholics began mission work among the Titonwañ and Ihañktoñwañ.

The Isañti sold the last of the O©eti §aúowiñ rights to territory east of the Mississippi River.

1839
George Armstrong Custer was born.

Father De Smet’s first journey west contacted Yanktons. Continued journeys until death in 1873.

1840
Union Act The British Parliament reunited Upper and Lower Canada under the Union Act, creating the Province of Canada. The British made the decision to reunite the two provinces into one, 49 years after the Constitutional Act was passed to separate them. Parliament approved the act.

1841
Catholics set up a mission for the Isanti in St. Paul.

1840’s
An increasing flow of emigrants to Oregon and California bring cholera, smallpox, and measles to the Indians as well as accelerated buffalo hunting for the fur trade.

1842
Crazy Horse was born

1846
Oregon Country becomes part of the United States as a result of a settlement with England.

Paul Kane travels among and paints Indians of southern Canada and the American Northwest.

1847
Mormon settlers reach site of present-day Salt Lake City.

1848-49
Gold is discovered in California - the California Gold Rush begins, increasing western expansion across former Native American lands

1849
The U.S. government purchased Fort Laramie from the American Fur Company and brought troops in.

Bureau of Indian Affairs transferred from the War Department to the Department of the Interior.

The Courthouse Rebellion in Canada, involving the Metis of the Red River.

1850
The first of a series of treaties between Canada and Canadian tribes are enacted, a policy continuing until 1923.

1851
July 23 in the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux, Two bands of Dakota cede to the U.S. lands in southwestern portions of the Minnesota Territory (as well as portions of Iowa and South Dakota) for $1.665 million in cash and annuities

August 5, In the Treaty of Mendota, Two other band of Dakota cede to the U.S. lands in southeastern portions of the Minnesota Territory for $1.41 million in cash and annuitities.

Summer, 7,000 Dakota are moved to two reservations bordering the Minnesota River in southwestern Minnesota.

The Fort Laramie Treaty was signed with the Lakota, Cheyenne, Arapaho and other Plains tribes delineating the extent of their territories and allowing passage across these territories in exchange for payments to the tribes. The extent of Lakota and Nakota territories were clearly described. Thus began the incursions of miners and wagon trains on the Oregon and later the Bozeman trails, few at first but an onslaught after the end of the Civil War.

1854
August 17, Grattan Affair in Wyoming, 29 soildier were killed while tyring to arrest Brule warriors who had killed and eaten an emigrants cow. All evidence inidcates that the attitude an dindiscretion of Lutinent Gratton caused the fight.

Because of the Gratton affiar the Brule were declared hostile. Subsequently the Sioux have first encounter with white military forces. First outbreak of armed hostilities between the United States Government and Plains Indians (Brule and Lakota). One-hundred-thirty Brule warriors are killed. Others taken into custody at Fort Laramie.

End of Indian removal policy

1855
September 3, Colonel William Harney uses 1300 soldiers to massacre an entire Brulé village in retribution for the killing of 30 soldiers who were killed in retribution for the killing of the Brulé chief, Conquering Bear, in a dispute over a cow.

1857
Spring, a renegade band of Dakota, under the leadership of Inkpaduta, kill forty Americans in northwest Iowa in what is called “the Spirit Lake Massacre.” They captured four white women, two were latter killed and the remaining two were rescued by other Ißañti.

1858
Dakota leaders on a diplomatic visit to Washington D.C. are told they did not own the reservation land. Faced with more debt and threatened with expulsion, they are forced to sell the northern half of their reservation.

Yankton Sioux sold all their land except the Pipestone quarry and the lands set aside for their reservation in southeastern South Dakota.

1858-1859
Colorado Gold Rush

1860
Reverand Samuel Henman started an Episcopal mission for the Isañti.

1861-65
US Civil War

1861
The Confederate government organizes a Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most tribes remain neutral. The South, however, makes promises to Indians concerning the return of their tribal lands to encourage their support. After the war, as punishment for their support of the Confederacy, the Five Civilized Tribes are compelled to accept a treaty relinquishing the western half of the Indian Territory to 20 tribes from Kansas and Nebraska.

1862
August, Annuity payments are late and rumors circulate that payments, if they will be made at all, will not be in the customary gold because of the ongoing Civil War. Dakota plan to demand that future annuity payments be made directly to them, rather than through traders. Traders, learning of plan, refuse to sell provisions on credit, despite widespread hunger and starvation on the reservation. At a meeting called by Indian Agent Thomas Galbraith to resolve the impasse, Andrew Myrick, spokesman for the traders, says: “So far as I am concerned, if they are hungry, let them eat grass.”

August 17, Four Dakota kill five settlers near Litchfield. Councils are held among the Dakota on whether to wage war. Despite deep divisions on the issue, war is the chosen course.

August 18, Groups of Dakota kill 44 Americans in attacks on the Redwood Agency and on federal troops advancing to the Agency in the hope of suppressing the uprising. Ten Americans are captured.

August 19, Minnesota Governor Ramsey appoints Col. Henry Sibley to command American volunteer forces.Sixteen settlers are killed in Dakota attacks in and around New Ulm. Settlers crowd into a small barricaded area of New Ulm’s main street.

August 20-21, Dakota attack Fort Ridgely, but the Fort is successfully defended.

August 23, About 650 Dakota attack New Ulm a second time. Most buildings in the town are burned. Although 34 die and 60 are wounded, the town is successfully defended

August 25, About 2,000 New Ulm refugees (mostly women, children, and wounded men) load into 153 wagons or set off on foot for Mankato, thirty miles away.

September 2, In the Battle of Birch Coulee (near Morton), American troops suffer their greatest casualties of the war.

September 6, Major General John Pope, having recently lost the Battle of Bull Run, is appointed commander of U.S. troops in the Northwest, charged with suppressing the Dakota uprising

September 23, The battle of Wood Lake is a decisive victory for American troops. While the Wood Lake fighting is in progress, Dakota opposed to continuation of the war take control of 269 American captives held near the Chippewa River.

September 26, “Friendlies” release American captives. Col. Sibley enters Dakota camp and takes 1200 Dakota men, women, and children into custody. Over the next weeks, and additional 800 Dakota will surrender to American forces. In 37 days of fighting, the Dakota Conflict has claimed the lives of over 500 Americans and about 60 Dakota.

September 28, Sibley appoints a five-member military commission to “try summarily” Dakota for “murder and other outrages” committed against Americans. Sixteen trials take place the same day. Ten Dakota are convicted and sentenced to be hanged, six are acquitted. Over the next six weeks, 393 Dakota are tried.

October 14, At President Lincoln’s cabinet meeting, the ongoing Dakota trials are discussed. Lincoln and several cabinet members are disturbed by General Pope’s report on the trials and planned executions, and move to prevent precipitous action.

October 17, General Pope tells Sibley that “the President directs that no executions be made without his sanction.”

November 3, The last of 393 trials is conducted, with 42 trials taking place on the last day. In all, 323 Dakota are convicted and 303 are sentenced to be hanged. All but 8 of those acquitted remained imprisoned at Camp Release.

November 9, the 303 condemned Dakota are moved from the Lower Agency to Camp Lincoln, near Mankato. While passing through New Ulm, the captives are attacked by an angry mob. A few Dakota are killed and many injured. (Meanwhile, the 1700 uncondemned are moved to Fort Snelling, near St. Paul.)

November 10, Pope forwards to the President names of those condemned. Lincoln asks for “a full and complete record of their convictions” and “a careful statement” indicating “the more guilty and influential of the culprits.”

Nobember 14, Pope forwards records of the trials to President Lincoln, together with a letter urging Lincoln to authorize execution of all of the condemned and warning of mob violence if the executions did not go forward.

Late Novmber, Rev. Riggs and Bishop Whipple urge clemency for Dakota involved in battles and executions only for those proven to have committed rape or killed women or children.

December 4, Several hundred civilians, armed with hatchets, clubs, and knives, attack the camp where the condemned Dakota are being held, but are surrounded and disarmed by soldiers.

December 6, President Lincoln issues an order allowing only 39 of the planned 300 executions to go forward. The execution of one additional condemned man is suspended later after new evidence casts doubt upon his guilt.

December 24, The 38 condemned Dakota are allowed to meet with their families for the last time.

December 26, At 10 a.m., the condemned, singing and chanting Dakota songs, are led to the scaffolds in Mankato. Three drumbeats signal the moment of execution, the crowd cheers. Bodies are buried in a single grave on the edge of town.

Homestead Act was passed opening the way for white settlement in Indian territory.

1863
Congress enacts a law providing for the removal of Dakota and Winnebago bands from Minnesota.

The Crow Creek Reservation in South Dakota is established to serve as the home of the Dakota and Winnebago who were order to be removed form Minnesota.

The convicted prisoners who were not executed are moved to Camp McClellan near Davenport, Iowa.

Battle of Big Mound – General Sibley attacked one of the Ißanti camps that had left the Minnesota during the conflict and had not returned. Both sides had losses, of the Isañti who escaped some went north and the remainder went west.

September 3, Sibley’s troops attacked Inkpaduta’s Santee camp at Whitestone Hill near present day Ellendale, North Dakota. More than 300 Dakota’s were killed and nearly tht many were captured.

1864
July 28, A camp of Santee, Titonwan, and Ihanktonwan was attacked at Killdeer Mountian in North Dakota. The prisoners taken and others from the various hostile bands were settled on two reservations established for the Lower Yanktonia at Crow Creek and the for the Snatee at Santee in northeastern Nebraska. The Battle of Killdeer Mountain is viewed to be the end of the Minnesota conflict that lasted roughly two years. It is said that 700 white people killed in the Isañti raid in the first few days of the conflict and 1500 or more members of he O©eti ßaúowiñ lost their lives in the aftermath.

November 29, Sand Creek Massacre Colonel Chivington, a sometimes Methodist minister, leads a troop of volunteers and soldiers to Black Kettle’s camp at Sand Creek for the sole purpose of killing peaceful Indians. They kill 105 Indian women and children and 28 men, many standing together under a U.S. and a white flag. Afterward, they mutilated the bodies horribly and wore the severed bodies parts on their saddles and their hats. Unbelievable as it may seem, this event is still classified as a major Civil War battle!

Indians regarded as competent witnesses under federal law and allowed to testify in trials.

1865
October, at Old Fort Sully, near Pierre a general treaty of peace was made with the Santee, Yankton, Yanktonia, and the one Band of Titonwañ, the Lower Brule, who all agreed to go on reservations. The other Titonwan bands refused to take part. However a series of treaties were concluded with the other Titonwan Bands stating that there would be peace among them and the US. None of the main war chiefs participated in the Treaty making.

US Government gives a contract to Protestant Missionary Societies to operate Indian schools.

April 9, Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox, the Civil War ends.

April 14,President Lincoln assassinated and Andrew Johnson becomes president.

July, General Patrick Conner organizes 3 columns of soldiers to begin an invasion of the Powder River Basin, from the Black Hills, Paha Sapa, to the Big Horn Mountains. They had one order: “Attack and kill every male Indian over twelve years of age.” Conner builds a fort on the Powder River. Wagon trains begin to cross the Powder River Basin on their way to the Montana gold fields.

July 24 - 26, Battle of Platte Bridge - the Cheyennes and Lakota besiege the most northerly outpost of the U.S. army and succeed in killing all members of a platoon of cavalrymen sent out to meet a wagon train as well as the wagon drivers and their escorts.

August 1865 ,Battle of Tongue River - Connor’s column destroys an Arapaho village, including all the winter’s food supply, tents and clothes. They kill over 50 of the Arapaho villagers.

Late September,Roman Nose’s Fight - The Cheyenne chief, Roman Nose, in revenge for the Sand Creek massacre, led several hundred Cheyenne warriors in a siege of the Cole and Walker columns of exhausted and starving soldiers who were attempting to return to Fort Laramie. Because they were armed only with bows, lances and a few old trade guns, they were unable to overrun the soldiers, but harassed them for several days, until Connor’s returning column rescued them.

October 14, The Southern Cheyenne chiefs sign a treaty agreeing to cede all the land they formerly claimed as their own, most of Colorado Territory, to the U.S. government. This was the desired end of the Sand Creek massacre.

October, Connor returns to Fort Laramie leaving 2 companies of soldiers at the fort they had constructed at the fork of the Crazy Woman Creek and the Powder River. Red Cloud and his warriors kept these men isolated and without supplies all winter. Many died of scurvy, malnutrition and pneumonia before winter’s end. They were not relieved until June 28 by Col. Carrington’s company.

Late Fall, Nine treaties signed with the Sioux, including the Brulés, Hunkpapas, Oglalas and Minneconjous. These were widely advertised as signifying the end of the Plains wars although none of the war chiefs had signed any of these treaties.

1866
President Andrew Jackson Orders the Release of 177 Dakota Prisoners of War.

April 1, Congress overrides President Johnson’s veto of the Civil Rights Bill, giving equal rights to all persons born in the U.S. (except Indians). The President is empowered to use the Army to enforce the law.

Late Spring, war chiefs Red Cloud, Spotted Tail, Standing Elk, Dull Knife
and others come to Fort Laramie to negotiate a treaty concerning access to the Powder River Basin. Shortly after the beginning of the talks, on June 13, Col. Henry Carrington and several hundred infantry men reached Fort Laramie to build forts along the Bozeman trail. It was clear to the chiefs that the treaty was a mere formality; the road would be opened whether they agreed or not. This was the beginning Red Cloud’s War.

June 13, Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, giving negroes rights of citizenship, is forwarded to the states for ratification.

July 13, Col. Carrington begins building Fort Phil Kearney. He halts his column between the forks of the Little Piney and the Big Piney Creeks, in the best hunting grounds of the Plains Indians, and pitches camp. The Cheyenne visit and decide that the camp is too strong for them to attack directly and begin plans for harassing the soldiers who leave the camp and for drawing out soldiers by using decoys. All summer they harasses the soldiers and make alliances with other Plains groups, forming a coalition of Lakota, Cheyenne, Arapaho and Crow groups.

December 21, Fetterman Massacre early in December the young Lakota warriors, including Crazy Horse, executed an elaborate decoy manuever to draw soldiers out of the fort. They were very successful and killed several officers and severely wounded several other soldiers. In the next weeks an ambush was carefully planned and a location for a trap was chosen. Two thousand warriors moved south and set up camp two miles north of the chosen trap location. Ten young warriors were selected from the different tribal groups represented for the most dangerous job of decoying the soldiers. These decoys performed elaborate manuevers to lure the soldiers into the trap. When they were all inside the trap, the decoys signaled to the concealed warriors who rose up and killed all 80 of the soldiers. Nonetheless, casualties among the Indians were great because they were poorly armed to compete with the new repeating rifles of the soldiers. The Indians named this battle The Battle of the Hundred Slain. The whites knew it as the Fetterman Massacre because the soldiers were led by Captain Fetterman, who had boasted that he could defeat the entire Sioux Nation with a single company of cavalrymen. Col. Carrington was appalled by the mutilation of the bodies they found. Had he seen the bodies of the Indians slain at Sand Creek, the condition of these bodies would have come as no surprise.

Abandonment of the Crow Creek Reservation and establishment of the Santee Reservation near the mouth of the Niobrara River in Nebraska. Pardoned prisoners from the military prison in Davenport, Iowa join the Crow Creek survivors in this new location.


1867
Constitution Act (1871) [BNA Act] British North American Act establishes the Confederation of Canada. The first Dominion Parliament assembled.

Simultaneous establishment of the Sisseton (or Lake Traverse) Reservation in northeastern South Dakota and the Devil’s Lake Reservation in central North Dakota for the Sissetonwan and Wahpetonwan Dakota peoples.

Summer, Grand Council of tribes at Bear Butte, the sacred mountain of the Cheyenne and Lakota, more than 6000 warriiors in attnendance including Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, and Sitting Bull, among other great leaders, all pledged to end further encroachment by the whites.

1868
The Army agrees to abandon the forts on the Bozeman Trail

The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 creates the Great Sioux Reservation and agrees that the Sioux do not cede their hunting grounds in Montana and Wyoming territories. The Indians agree to become “civilized.”

George Armstrong Custer established himself as a great Indian fighter by leading the Massacre on the Washita in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) in which Black Kettle is killed.

Indian Act enacted by parliament shapes new administrative machinerary for indian Affairs.

1869
Hudson’s Bay Company sells its vast holdings of land (Rupert’s Land) to the Dominion of Canada.

First Riel Rebellion in Canada of Red River Metis.

Transcontinental railroad completed. 1869 - The Transcontinental Railroad cuts across Native American lands.

The Flandreau Colony. Tired of government interference, 25 Mdewakantonwan Dakota families leave the Santee reservation to establish independent homesteads in and around Flandreau, South Dakota.

1869-70
Smallpox epidemic among Canadian Plains Indian including Blackfeet, Piegans, and Bloods.

1870
There are an estimated 13 million buffalo on the Plains.

President Grant gives control of Indian agencies to 12 different Christian denominations instead of army officers.

Grant’s Peace Policy continued to 1881

First sum earmarked for federal education of Indians.

First Ghost Dance Movement, Prayer to prevent immigration

1871
Treaty-making period formally ends as Congress passes law forbidding further negotiations of treaties with Indian tribes. The Cherokee Tobacco Case of 1870, ruling that the Cherokees are not exempt from taxes on produce (as established in an earlier treaty), sets the stage for the new law. Indians are now to be subject to acts of Congress and executive orders.

General Sheridan issues orders forbidding western Indians to leave reservations without permission of civilian agents.

White hunters begin wholesale killing of buffalo.

Indian burial grounds invaded by whites seeking bones for manufacture of buttons.

Sissetonwan chief Tatanka Najin, or Standing Buffalo, is killed in Montana. Some of his people travel north to the Qu’Appelle Lakes in present-day Saskatchewan. Establishment of Fort Peck Reservation, serving both Dakota and Assiniboine peoples of northeastern Montana.

1872
United States Government sends out a survey team to plot a course for the Northern Pacific Railroad through the Sitting Bull’s territory. Warned to stay away, the Government complied.

In August, two U.S. railroad survey teams, each accompanied by about 500 troops, head into eastern Montana and are attacked by bands led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, with few casualties, but severe consequences. General William Sherman testified before Congress in March: “This railroad is a national enterprise, and we are forced to protect the men during its survey and construction, through, probably, the most warlike nation of Indians on this continent, who will fight for every foot of the line.”

1873
In August, the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies move to the White River in northwest Nebraska next to Fort Robinson, living mostly on government rations. That same summer, an Oglala hunting party encounters some white buffalo hunters, who kill Whistler, a famous and friendly chief, and two other Oglalas. The Lakota and Pawnee escalate their ongoing war over the dwindling number of buffalo when Lakotas attack a Pawnee camp, killing 50 men, women and children and stealing their buffalo meat and skins. The Lakota also fight with the Crow tribe over hunting grounds in Montana. In addition, a skirmish erupts between Hunkpapa, Oglala, Miniconjous, Sans Arcs, and Cheyennes, led overall by Sitting Bull, and a railroad survey team led by General Custer, with a large military escort. Miners looking for gold in the Black Hills are frequently attacked by Indians.


1872-1875
The Lakota, with their Cheyenne and Arapaho allies, drive the Crow out of eastern Montana because of intertribal competition for the shrinking hunting grounds for buffalo.

1873
Blackfeet men, women and children were slaughtered by U.S. soldiers on the Marias River in Montana in response for the killing of Malcolm Clarke and the wounding of his son by a small party of young Blackfeet men.

Later that year, due to disagreements about the implementation of the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty, Red Cloud and Spotted Tail negotiate with President Ulysses S. Grant in Washington, D.C. It is reaffirmed that the Sioux (and other tribes) could live in the Powder River country, as well as hunt in it.

Custer and the Seventh Cavalry come to the northern plains to guard the surveyers for the Northern Pacific Railroad. He has a chance encounter with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.

The panic of 1873 is followed by the collapse of the economy a depression that lasts until 1877 follows.

1874
North West Mounted Police organized in Canada.

Custer leads a large expedition, including 1,000 troops, into the Black Hills to explore and set up military posts. The expedition, which also includes geologists, finds gold and publicizes their discovery, leading to a massive influx of prospectors to the area. In September, the U.S. military are ordered to stop miners from trespassing on the Sioux Reservation

Grey Nuns from Canada arrive in Fort Totten, Dakota Territory; employed by U.S. Government

Treaty Four is signed by Pheasant Rump, Ocean Man, and Carry The Kettle Nakota Bands are party to this treaty. Wood Mountain Lakota Band and Standing Buffalo Dakota Band are seeking adhesion o this treaty.

1875
There are 15,000 miners in the Black Hills at the beginning of the year. In spring, Red Cloud, Spotted Tail and other chiefs are summoned to Washington to meet with President Grant and discuss the Black Hills. The Indians argue among themselves about how to deal with the situation and nothing is resolved. The U.S. Senate Commission visits the Nebraska Agencies to offer $6 million for purchase of the Black Hills, but the Indians refuse. By November, President Grant abandons any attempts to keep the miners out of the Black Hills, ultimately reversing the U.S. position by protecting the miners and settlers. On December, 6, 1875, the U.S. Commissioner on Indian Affairs orders the Lakota onto the reservation by a Jan. 31, 1876, deadline, threatening to treat them as “hostiles” and have them arrested. Some Sioux, scattered during the harsh winter, don’t receive the order.

Establishment of the Sioux Valley or Oak River Reserve in west central Manitoba, Canada by Minister of the Interior and endorsed by Dakota leaders. This is one of the many small Dakota reserves scattered across Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

1876
February 1, the Secretary of the Interior relinquishes jurisdiction over all so-called “hostile” Sioux - meaning those off the reservation lands - to the War Department. The Army is ordered in for the 1876 War that ensues, which includes the famous Battle of the Little Big Horn. In October, the Treaty of 1876 between the U.S. and the Sioux Nation of Indians, the Northern Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians is signed, despite protests of the majority of the tribes, and enacted into law by Congress in February the following year.

Custer is defeated at the Battle of Little Big Horn. Dakota warriors are reported to be represented among the assembled Indian nations.

The U.S. government issues an ultimatum that all Sioux who are not on the Great Sioux Reservation by January 31 will be considered hostile. The winter is bitter and most Sioux do not even hear of the ultimatum until after the deadline.

March 17, 1876 - General George Crook’s advance column attacks a Sioux/Cheyenne camp on the Powder River. The people were driven from their lodges and many were killed. The lodges and all the winter supplies were burned and the horse herd captured. That night, the warriors recaptured the horse herd. The people then sought refuge in Crazy Horse’s camp an few miles away.

Spring, Sitting Bull organizes the greatest gathering of Indians on the northern plains.

June 17, in the Battle of the Rosebud, General Crook is forced
to retire from the “pincers” campaign.

June 25, The Battle of the Little Bighorn, where General George Armstrong Custer and 210 men under his command are killed. The news reaches the east for the Independence Day Centennial celebrations.

October, Colonel Nelson “Bear Coat” Miles arrived on the Yellowstone River to take command of the campaign against the northern plains indians.

The Manypenny Commission demands that the Sioux give up Paha Sapa or starve. Having no choice, Red Cloud, Spotted Tail and the other reservation chiefs signed over Paha Sapa.

Canada enacts Canadian Indian Act which defines Indian policy and gives individual Indians the right to seek enfranchisement as Canadian citizens by renouncing their rights and privileges as Indians.

1876-1878
1876 Treaty Number Six and 1878 Treaty Six Adhesion By Stony Indians, the Mosquito Nakota Band and Alexis and Pauls Stoney Bands are party o this treaty. The surrendered Bands of Grissly Bears Head and Lean Man were also signatories to this treaty. White Cap and Whapeton Dakota Bands are seeking adhesion to this treaty.

1877
Incorporation of the Homestake Mining Company. Its operations centered at the town of Lead in the Black Hills eventually expanded to produce more gold than any other mining operation in the Western Hemisphere in the next century.

The Wolf Mountain Battle occurs in January. Crazy Horse is killed at Fort Robinson in September, after volunteering to come to the fort to discuss ongoing conflicts. That same month, Red Cloud and Spotted Tail travel to Washington to meet with President Rutherford B. Hayes, receiving his promise that they could choose their own permanent settlement site within the reservation, which now excluded the Black Hills.

Early May, Sitting Bull escapes to Canada. He has about 300 followers with him.

May 6, Crazy Horse surrenders at Fort Robinson.

May 7, a small band of Minneconjou Sioux is defeated by General Miles, thus ending the Great Sioux Wars.

September 6, Crazy Horse is killed at the hands of soldiers and some of his own people.

The Manypenny Agreement is ratified by Congress, taking Paha Sapa and confining the Indians to reservations.

1877 Treaty Seven, the Wesley, Chinki, and Bears Paw Stoney Bands are signaories to this treaty.

1878
Congress makes appropriation to provide for Indian Police, a policy which in 1883 brings about the Court of Indian Offenses with authorization for tribal units to administer justice in all but major crimes. In the Major Crimes Act of 1885, federal courts are formally given jurisdiction over Indian cases involving major crimes.

January, 1A Commission finds the Indian Bureau permeated with “cupidity, inefficiency, and the most barefaced dishonesty.” The department’s affairs were “a reproach to the whole nation.” Carl Schurz had already dismissed the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, John Q. Smith on September 27, 1877. He now discharged many more Bureau employees and began a reorganization of the Indian agents.

The Pine Ridge and Rosebud agencies (later made into reservations) are created in June.


1879
Further reduction in Indian lands takes place after further action and Agreement initiated by the Government in 1879. Red Cloud, without approval of his people, signs over the Black Hills, site of Bear Butte, to the United States Government.

Bureau of American Ethnology, a branch of the Smithsonian, is founded for anthropological studies.

Federal Court at Omaha, Nebraska, responding to a habeas corpus trial brought by Standing Bear, a Ponca, gives Indians the right to sue.

The Carlisle Indian School is founded in Pennsylvania, in an aggressive U.S. government campaign to “civilize” Indian children. Children from reservations across the West are sent to the school in order to assimilate into white culture. This assimilation includes cutting their hair, burning their clothing and forcing them to wear European American dress. They are forbidden to speak their Native language, and punishment for infractions is severe. The school is a breeding ground for disease, and many children die there.


1879-85
Many “Friends of the Indian” organizations are founded, including Indian Protection Committee, Indian Rights Association, Women’s National Indian Association, and National Indian Defense Association.

1880
Marty made Bishop and Vicar Apostolic of Dakota Territory

1881
July 19, Sitting Bull and 186 of his remaining followers surrender at Fort Buford. He is sent to Fort Randall for 2 years as a prisoner of war instead of being pardoned, as promised.

Late summer, Spotted Tail is assassinated by Crow Dog. White officials dismiss the killing as a simple quarrel, but the Sioux feel that it was the result of a plot to wrest control from a strong Indian leader.

White Cap Reserve established south of Saskatoon. George Weldon hired to be the Farm Inspector.

1883
U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs issued a ban on traditional ceremonies and dances ... what he termed “the barbarous customs of the Sioux.”

Sitting Bull is allowed to go to the Standing Rock Reservation where he lived the rest of his life across the Grand River from his birthplace.

1884
Canadian Parliament passes the Indian Advancement Act, encouraging “Democratic” election of chiefs by Indian bands. The Mohawks at St. Regis, Ontario, resist the provision, wanting to keep their traditional method of choosing leaders.

1885
Last great herd of buffalo exterminated.

Second Riel Rebellion of Metis living along the Saskatchewan River in Canada. Cree Indians surrender to Dominion troops.

Canadian Pacific transcontinental railroad is completed.

Sitting Bull tours with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show.

Major Crimes Act, was passed by Congress to limit the power of Indian nations to punish Indians who violated tribal law. Previously, the Supreme Court had recognized this power of Indian governments. See; Exparte Crow Dog, 109 U.S. 556 (1886). The effect of the Act has been to punish crimes committed by Indians in accordance with American ideas of law and justice rather than Indian law and custom.

White Cap’s and twenty of his men were coerced by the Crees to join Big Bear’s Band at the Fish Creek skirmish. After the skirmish some of his followers snuck away. White Cap was taken to Riel at Batouche and was made part of Riel’s council. . White Cap could not talk Cree or French so he did not understand what was discussed but grasped enough to know that they were planning to rebel. White Cap escaped and went into to Saskatoon to see Dr. Gerald Willoughby. He told Dr. Willoughby of being held asgain his will and asked for assistance in getting his propoerty back from the Metis.

1887
The Dawes Severalty Act, otherwise known as the General Allotment Act, gives the President power to reduce the landholdings of the Indian nations across the country by allotting 160 acres to the heads of Indian families and 80 acres to individuals. The “surplus lands” on the reservations were opened up to settlement.

1888
Red Cloud invites the Jesuits to the reservation to establish a school for Lakota children in order to avoid sending children off the reservation. Holy Rosary Mission was established west of Pine Ridge.

1889
South Dakota and North Dakota enter the federal Union as states created out of the Dakota Territory.

The Sioux sign an agreement with the U.S. government breaking up the great Sioux Reservation. The Sioux will get six separate small reservations. The major part of their land was thrown open to settlers.

1889-90
Minnesota reservations for returning Mdewakantonwan Dakota people and those who stayed are established by acts of Congress at Prairie Island, Shakopee and Lower Sioux near Redwood Falls.

1890
Mid-1890, A prophet from the Paiutes in Nevada, Wovoka, introduces a new religion, based on the Ghost Dance, to all Indian people.

The Ghost Dance religion sweeps across the Sioux reservation.

Sitting Bull is killed on December 15 by Indian policemen, acting on behalf of the U.S. government.

On December 29, Big Foot’s band of Minneconjous, trying to reach Pine Ridge and the protection of Red Cloud after hearing of Sitting Bull’s death, are massacred at Wounded Knee Creek on December 29 by Custer’s old outfit, the Seventh Cavalry.

1894
December 7, Wahpeton Reserve established by Order in Council.

1898
The Curtis Act re-affirms allotment of tribal lands on Indian reservations and ends tribal sovereignty in the territories.

1906
The Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities makes excavation, theft or destruction of historic or prehistoric ruins or objects of antiquity on federal lands a criminal offense. Dead Indians and Indian artifacts are defined as “archeological resources,” thus considered federal property

1910
Wood Mountain Reserve established for the Lakota , each family was to be granted 160 acres.

1912
The Lakota’s request the government to given them all Township 4 for the Wood Mountain Reserve, farm implements and to set up a day school. The Government refused to establish a school on the grounds that there were not enough children on the reserve to warrant a school.

1919
Father Sylvester Eisenman, OSB came to Yankton Sioux Reservation and estalbished Marty Mission.

1921
An additional quarter section was added to the Whapeton Reserve by Order in Council.

1924
The Citizenship Act of 1924 naturalizes Indians born within the territorial limits of the United States.

1934
The Indian Reorganization Act recognizes tribal governments as sovereign nations.

1935
The Indian Arts and Crafts Board is funded under the U.S. Department of Indian Affairs to encourage Native arts and crafts and to certify the authenticity of Indian products.

1950s
The U.S. government adopts the Federal Relocation Policy of “terminating” tribes: that is, settling all obligations, withdrawing federal support and closing reservations. Congress eventually terminates

1958
Johnson Omalley Act P.L. 81-874 was amended to include assistance for educating Indian children, the JOM program became a supplemental aid program in lieu of tax dollars.

1961
Over 500 Native Americans gather for the American Indian Chicago Conference to support tribal sovereignty and survival. That same year, the National Indian Youth Council forms, considered by some to be a militant organization. Many other organizations supporting Native Americans are founded throughout the 1960s.

1962
The State of South Dakota acquires Bear Butte for development as a State Park

1965
Older Americans Act provides grants to American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Native Hawaiians to establish programs for older Native Americans under title VI of the act (45 CFR 1328);

1968
Indian Civil Rights Act gives full civil rights to individuals living under tribal law. It effectively reversed the 1896 Supreme Court decision, which declared that individuals living under tribal governments were not protected by the Bill of Rights.1968 The American Indian Movement (AIM) is founded in Minneapolis to address the needs of Native peoples, renew tribal spirituality, and reverse destructive governmental policies.

1969
Beginning in November, a small group of Native Americans called the Indians of All Tribes occupy Alcatraz Island for two years to create a greater awareness of the deplorable circumstances of Indians in the U.S. The island of Alcatraz was the site of a military prison from 1863 to 1933, and a federal prison from 1934 to 1963.

1969-1973
Louis R. Bruce – Oglala Sioux/Mohawk served as the Commissioenr of Indian Affairs

1970
President Richard Nixon formally ends the termination policies established in the 1950s. Dee Brown publishes Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Since its initial publication, over five million copies of the controversial book have been sold around the world.

1972
In the fall, AIM supporters organize “The Trail of Broken Treaties,” for which thousands of Indians drive to Washington, D.C., and occupy the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) headquarters, demanding that the U.S. recognize tribal sovereignty and self-determination.

Seven National Indian organizations march on Washington, D.C. and occupy the Bureau of Indian Affairs Headquarters in an effort to publicize grievances with the government.

1973
Members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) occupy the historic Wounded Knee village for 72 days in a tense and often violent confrontation with federal officials. The occupation draws national attention to the grievances of Indian people.

1973-76
In the three years following the Second Siege of Wounded Knee, 61 AIM supporters are killed on or near the Pine Ridge Reservation, despite ongoing FBI investigations. In a controversial ruling, Leonard Peltier is convicted and imprisoned for the 1975 killing of two FBI agents.

1975
The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act gives Native Americans more control in administering federal programs and services to their people.

1976-77
Ben Reifel, Rosebud Sioux – served as the Commissioenr of Indian Affiars

1977-78
U.S. Congress passes a series of approximately 50 laws that help redefine tribal issues regarding water rights, fishing rights and land acquisition. Some land is returned to the tribes, and issues of self-governance are further clarified.

1978
The Indian Child Welfare Act ends the discrimination that prevented Native Americans from acting as foster parents or qualifying for adoption. It also provides Indian communities with child welfare and family services. The American Indian Religious Freedom Act finally reverses U.S. policies outlawing certain tribal rituals and shamanic practices.

Congress passes the American Indian Religious Freedom Act affirming religious freedom for Indian people.

1980
The Supreme Court rules that the U.S. owes the Lakota Sioux interest from a 1877 payment as compensation for taking the Black Hills, originally part of Indian lands. The Lakota reject the payment, hoping to reclaim the Black Hills from the U.S.

1982
Canada Act/Constitution Act was the last constitutional enactment for Canada to be made by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It thus has the political importance of patriating the Canadian constitution; all future amendments must be done within Canada and according to amending formulas set out in Part V of the 1982 Constitution Act, which the Canada brought into force. Further Canada is hereinafter exempt of laws enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The 1982 Constitution Act brought into effect the Charter of Rights And Freedoms and includes a number of clauses that are key to protecting Aboriginal right sin Canada.

1983
United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit holds against Native American claims for protection of Bear Butte as a sacred site in Fools Crow v. Gullet, 706 F.2d 856 (8th Cir, 1983)

Indian Land Consolidation Act, .under this act when there are multiple heirs and the division of heirship lands equates to parcels of less than 2% the total and/or a lease payment of less than $100 the ownership of the heirship land will revert tot he tribe. This Act has caused many to loose their rights to heirship lands. At the time this Act was passed the United States Government stipulated that it had to responsibilities for Canadian Nationals (ie: Dakota/Nakota/Lakota who are members of Canadian Bands or residing in Canada ) and will no longer act as trustee for Canadian Nationals who own lands on US reservations or become heirs to properties on US reservations. As a result of this Act and the US Government’s position, many Canadian Dakota/Nakota/Lakota have lost their lands on US reservations.

1988
Tribally Controlled Schools Act provides grants for operation and management of tribally controlled schools

1989
The National Museum of the American Indian Act orders the Smithsonian Institute to return Native American remains to American Indian tribes.

1990
August, Dakota Nations of Canada hosts first Dakota/Nakota/Lakota Summit meeting at the Standing Buffalo Reserve. Canadian and American Bands/Tribes of the O©eti §ßaúowiñ commit to re-unite the O©eti ßakowiñ and work collectively on issues pertaining to the nation. It was determined that annual summit meetings or meetings of the Ik©e Wi©aßa Ta Omni©iye.

The Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act protects Indian gravesites on federal public lands against looting.

The Indian Arts and Crafts Act, which goes into effect in 1996, finally protects the work of Indian artists, an effort that began in 1935.

South Dakota Governor George S. Mickelson and representatives of the state’s nine tribal governments proclaim 1990 a Year of Reconciliation. A Century of Reconciliation is declared in 1991.

Native American Languages Act, this federal policy statement recognizing the language rights of American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

1991
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe.

1992
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Yankton Sioux Tribe.

The celebration of the 500th anniversary of the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas prompts protests from many Native American tribes and supporters.

Native American Language Act provides grant program to ensure survival and continuing vitality of Native American languages

1993
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Oglagla Sioux Tribe

United States Supreme Court - South Dakota versus Borland – Upheld that Congress, in the Flood Control and Cheyenne River Acts, abrogated the Tribe's rights under the Fort Laramie Treaty to regulate non Indian hunting and fishing on lands taken by the United States for construction of the Oahe Dam and Reservoir. Pp. 7-18.

1994
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe.

1995
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Wesley, Chinki, and Bearspaw Nakoda Bands in Morley, Ablerta.

1996
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Oglala Sioux Tribe at Fort Laramie.

1997
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Sioux Valley Dakota Nation

United States Supreme Court - Babbit versus Youpee states that the 1983 Indian Lands Consolidation Act abrogates rights of decent and devise and further does not provide compensation for lands escheated to the tribe and therefore violates the 5th Amendment Rights.

Corporation for Public Broadcasting establishes Native American Public Telecommunications, Inc., (NAPT) to promote, produce and distribute Native American television and radio programming.

1998
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Wahpeton Dakota Nation

United States Supreme Court in South Dakota versus Yankton Sioux Tribe held that the 1894 Act’s operative language and the circumstances surrounding its passage demonstrate that Congress intended to diminish the Yankton Reservation. Pp. 11—27.

Aboriginal Languages Initiative is passed by Parliament, the first funding program specific for Aboriginal Languages – a $20 million dollar four year initiative.

1999
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Upper Sioux Community in Granite Falls, Minnesota

On March 22, Sioux people establish the Oceti Sakowin spiritual camp on La Framboise Island in the Missouri River near Pierre, South Dakota, in protest of the treaty-breaking Danklow Acts (Terrestrial Wildlife Habitat Restoration Act and Water Resources Development Authorization), which give 200,000 acres of tribal lands to the state of South Dakota.

July 7, President William Clinton visits the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota for a “nation to nation” business meeting and tours the reservation’s housing facilities. The president signs a pact with Oglala leaders establishing an empowerment zone and participates in a conference on home ownership and economic development for Native Americans.

2000
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Standing Buffalo Dakota Nation.

January 16, the activist group Grass Roots Oyate begins its occupation of the Red Cloud Building at the Oglala Sioux Tribal Headquarters, Pine Ridge Reservation, in protest of what they deem the corrupt, oppressive and ineffective politics of tribal leadership. Federal officials remove financial records the following day, and the elected tribal president was eventually suspended. The activists vow to continue the occupation until their demands are met.

September, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) determine that bones of the 9,000 year-old human remains known as Kennewick Man, found in the Columbia River in Washington, be returned to the five Indian tribes that have claimed him as their ancient ancestor, as determined by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990.

Tribal Self-Governance Demonstration Project Act Amendments, permanently establish Tribal Self-Governance for Indian Health Service programs in a new Title V; repeals Title III of ISEAA; establishes a Title VI in ISDEAA mandating a self-governance demonstration feasibility study.

2001
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was not held in 2001.

Native American Language Act – pending –to provide for the support of Native American Language Survival Schools, and for other programs.

2002
Ik©e Wi©aßa Summit Meeting was hosted by the Oglala Sioux Tribe at Red Shirt Table .

2003
The O©eti §aúowiñ become aware that the city of Sturgis and a group of private investors plan to build a sports complex/shooting range just 4 miles north of Bear Butte. Federal Government funding is being used to support the project. No Native American Spiritual leaders, or Tribal Leaders were ever contacted about the plans to build the shooting range that will affect so many people who pray at Bear Butte. Bear Butte is one of the most important sacred places on the North American continent, in order to provide some protection to this site, the people are urged to unite together to stop any more destruction at Bear Butte and other sacred places in the Black Hills