Treaty of Fort Laramie with Sioux, Assiniboine, etc.
Sept. 17, 1851. |11 Stats., p. 749
Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Laramie,
in the Indian Territory, between D. D. Mitchell, superintendent
of Indian affairs, and Thomas Fitzpatrick, Indian agent,
commissioners specially appointed and authorized by the
President of the United States, of the first part, and
the chiefs, headmen, and braves of the following Indian
nations, residing south of the Missouri River, east of
the Rocky Mountains, and north of the lines of Texas and
New Mexico, viz, the Sioux or Dahcotahs, Cheyennes, Arrapahoes,
Crows. Assinaboines, Gros-Ventre Mandans, and Arrickaras,
parties of the second part, on the seventeenth day of
September, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.a
The aforesaid nations, parties to this treaty. having
assembled for the purpose of establishing and confirming
peaceful relations amongst themselves, do hereby covenant
and agree to abstain in future from all hostilities whatever
against each other, to maintain good faith and friendship
in all their mutual intercourse, and to make an effective
and lasting peace.
The aforesaid nations do hereby recognize the right of
the United States Government to establish roads, military
and other posts, within their respective territories.
In consideration of the rights and privileges acknowledged
in the preceding article, the United States bind themselves
to protect the aforesaid Indian nations against the commission
of all depredations by the people of the said United States,
after the ratification of this treaty.
The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby agree and bind
themselves to make restitution or satisfaction for any
wrongs committed, after the ratification of this treaty,
by any band or individual of their people, on the people
of the United States, whilst lawfully residing in or passing
through their respective territories.
The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby recognize and acknowledge
the following tracts of country, included within the metes
and boundaries hereinafter designated, as their respective
The territory of the Sioux or Dahcotah Nation, commencing
the mouth of the White Earth River, on the Missouri River:
thence in a southwesterly direction to the forks of the
Platte River: thence up the north fork of the Platte River
to a point known as the Red Bute, or where the road leaves
the river; thence along the range of mountains known as
the Black Hills, to the head-waters of Heart River; thence
down Heart River to its mouth; and thence down the Missouri
River to the place of beginning.
The territory of the Gros Ventre, Mandans, and Arrickaras
Nations, commencing at the mouth of Heart River; thence
up the Missouri River to the mouth of the Yellowstone
River; thence up the Yellowstone River to the mouth of
Powder River in a southeasterly direction, to the head-waters
of the Little Missouri River; thence along the Black Hills
to the head of Heart River, and thence down Heart River
to the place of beginning.
The territory of the Assinaboin Nation, commencing at
the mouth of Yellowstone River; thence up the Missouri
River to the mouth of the Muscle-shell River; thence from
the mouth of the Muscle-shell River in a southeasterly
direction until it strikes the head-waters of
Big Dry Creek; thence down that creek to where it empties
into the Yellowstone River, nearly opposite the mouth
of Powder River, and thence down the Yellowstone River
to the place of beginning.
The territory of the Blackfoot Nation, commencing at the
mouth of Muscle-shell River; thence up the Missouri River
to its source; thence along the main range of the Rocky
Mountains, in a southerly direction, to the head-waters
of the northern source of the Yellowstone River; thence
down the Yellowstone River to the mouth of Twenty-five
Yard Creek; thence across to the head-waters of the Muscle-shell
River, and thence down the Muscle-shell River to the place
The territory of the Crow Nation, commencing at the mouth
of Powder River on the Yellowstone; thence up Powder River
to its source; thence along the main range of the Black
Hills and Wind River Mountains to the head-waters of the
Yellowstone River; thence down the Yellowstone River to
the mouth of Twenty-five Yard Creek; thence to the head
waters of the Muscle-shell River; thence down the Muscle-shell
River to its mouth; thence to the head-waters of Big Dry
Creek, and thence to its mouth.
The territory of the Cheyennes and Arrapahoes, commencing
at the Red Bute, or the place where the road leaves the
north fork of the Platte River; thence up the north fork
of the Platte River to its source; thence along the main
range of the Rocky Mountains to the head-waters of the
Arkansas River; thence down the Arkansas River to the
crossing of the Santa Fé road; thence in a northwesterly
direction to the forks of the Platte River, and thence
up the Platte River to the place of beginning.
It is, however, understood that, in making this recognition
and acknowledgement, the aforesaid Indian nations do not
hereby abandon or prejudice any rights or claims they
may have to other lands; and further, that they do not
surrender the privilege of hunting, fishing, or passing
over any of the tracts of country heretofore described.
The parties to the second part of this treaty having selected
principals or head-chiefs for their respective nations,
through whom all national business will hereafter be conducted,
do hereby bind themselves to sustain said chiefs and their
successors during good behavior.
In consideration of the treaty stipulations, and for the
damages which have or may occur by reason thereof to the
Indian nations, parties hereto, and for their maintenance
and the improvement of their moral and social customs,
the United States bind themselves to deliver to the said
Indian nations the sum of fifty thousand dollars per annum
for the term of ten years, with the right to continue
the same at the discretion of the President of the United
States for a period not exceeding five years thereafter,
in provisions, merchandise, domestic animals, and agricultural
implements, in such proportions as may be deemed best
adapted to their condition by the President of the United
States, to be distributed in proportion to the population
of the aforesaid Indian nations.
It is understood and agreed that should any of the Indian
nations, parties to this treaty, violate any of the provisions
thereof, the United States may withhold the whole or aportion
of the annuities mentioned in the preceding article from
the nation so offending, until, in the opinion of the
President of the United States, proper satisfaction shall
have been made.
In testimony whereof the said D. D. Mitchell and Thomas
Fitzpatrick commissioners as aforesaid, and the chiefs,
headmen, and braves, parties hereto, have set their hands
and affixed their marks, on the day and at the place first
D. D. Mitchell
Mah-toe-wha-you-whey, his x mark.
Mah-kah-toe-zah-zah, his x mark.
Bel-o-ton-kah-tan-ga, his x mark.
Nah-ka-pah-gi-gi, his x mark.
Mak-toe-sah-bi-chis, his x mark.
Meh-wha-tah-ni-hans-kah, his x mark.
Wah-ha-nis-satta, his x mark.
Voist-ti-toe-vetz, his x mark.
Nahk-ko-me-ien, his x mark.
Koh-kah-y-wh-cum-est, his x mark.
Bè-ah-té-a-qui-sah, his x mark.
Neb-ni-bah-seh-it, his x mark.
Beh-kah-jay-beth-sah-es, his x mark.
Arra-tu-ri-sash, his x mark.
Doh-chepit-seh-chi-es, his x mark.
Mah-toe-wit-ko, his x mark.
Toe-tah-ki-eh-nan, his x mark.
Mandans and Gros Ventres:
Nochk-pit-shi-toe-pish, his x mark.
She-oh-mant-ho, his x mark.
Koun-hei-ti-shan, his x mark.
Bi-atch-tah-wetch, his x mark.
In the presence of—
A. B. Chambers, secretary.
S. Cooper, colonel, U. S. Army.
R. H. Chilton, captain, First Drags.
Thomas Duncan, captain, Mounted Riflemen.
Thos. G. Rhett, brevet captain R. M. R.
W. L. Elliott, first lieutenant R. M. R.
C. Campbell, interpreter for Sioux.
John S. Smith, interpreter for Cheyennes.
Robert Meldrum, interpreter for the Crows.
H. Culbertson, interpreter for Assiniboines and Gros Ventres.
Francois L’Etalie, interpreter for Arick arees.
John Pizelle, interpreter for the Arrapahoes.
B. Gratz Brown.
Edmond F. Chouteau.
This treaty as signed was ratified by the Senate with
an amendment changing the annuity in Article 7 from fifty
to ten years, subject to acceptance by the tribes. Assent
of all tribes except the Crows was procured (see Upper
Platte C., 570, 1853, Indian Office) and in subsequent
agreements this treaty has been recognized as in force
(see post p. 776).
Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Vol. II (Treaties). Compiled
and edited by Charles J. Kappler. Washington: Government
Printing Office, 1904.